Lecture 5, the Action Potential; (1.25.13)
The Nernst Equation
o A mathematical model that posited: if you knew the distribution of freely moving
ions, you could predict the voltage across a membrane.
o Being relatively accurate, demonstrates that it may
Lecture 22, Sleep Cycles; 3.20.13
To measure sleeps affect on brain patterns and muscle activity, several tools used.
o Electroencephalograph (EEG) measures brain activity by tracing neuron activity.
Placed upon the scalp.
o Electromyograph (EMG) measures
Lecture 6, the Propagation of the Action Potential; (1.28.13)
o When any current is put through any object, there is a passive movement of
current down the object.
o Depending on the strength of the current, the disturbances are stronger.
Lecture 27, Nutrient Balance; 3.29.13
Two distinct problems seen easily by experiments
o What tells you when to eat? What is hunger?
o How do you know when to stop? The phenomenon known as satiety.
Several theories based on negative feedback
o As you use
Lecture 9, Neuropharmacology and Disease; (2.4.13)
o 14/10,000 is the approximate incidence rate.
o Autoimmune disease where immune system target acetylcholine receptors.
o It is known that acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter that work
Lecture 37, Learning Pathologies; 4.26.13
Most common learning affliction is amnesia, the inability to learn or remember.
o Retrograde amnesia reflects a loss of memory prior to a certain point.
For the most part, this subtype is brought on by head trauma
Lecture 34, Learning and Memory; 4.17.13
There have been several demonstrated types of learning.
o Quick note; some argued that classical learning associated a stimulus with a
stimulus, whereas operant conditioning associated a stimulus with a response.
Lecture 7, Introduction to Neurotransmitters and Synapses; (1.30.13)
Sequence of events
o Located in the axon terminal are voltage-gated calcium channels.
o When the action potential arrives, the axon terminal begins to pull calcium in.
o The result is th
Lecture 30, How Hormones Organize Behavioral Systems; 4.8.13
In a developing organism, starting with a fertilized egg, a number of cells are sequestered
o These cells become known as the germ cells, precursor cells from which actual
Lecture 31, Hormones and Brain Organization; 4.10.13
What are the differences in the male and female brain that causes exhibition of different
behaviors (sexual preference and reproductive capabilities for example)?
o Preface: a very controversial study i
Lecture 29, Hormones and Behavior; 4.5.13
What is a hormone?
o A chemical messenger secreted in the blood that travels to a target tissue, with the
ultimate being an action in response.
o They are secreted from glands throughout the body.
Hormones vs. Neu
Lecture 16, The Visual Cortex; 2.22.13
Review the Retinotopic Map
o There are distinct locations in the thalamus that receive information from distinct
parts of the vision receptors.
o Note, the thalamus has layers; why?
The nerves from the left and right
Lesson 8, the Synapse; (2.1.13)
Look at the voltage of the post synaptic neuron
o Each action potential serves to depolarize the post synaptic neuron.
o If these action potentials occur within a short time, they summate and further
build the post-synaptic
Lecture 4 (The Resting Potential); 1.23.2013
Hodgkins and Huxley
o Nobel Prize winners who confirmed the suspicion that electricity was a pivotal
part of our nervous system.
o To test this, Hodgkins and Huxley were interested in measuring voltage, the
Lecture 20, Motor system; 3.8.13
o Associated with the skeletal system, allows for movements.
o Work with glands, organs, etc.
o The heart; a combination of smooth and striated.
Striated Muscle Detailing
o Flexors a
Lecture 2 (The History of the Brain and Behavior); 1.16.2013
Aristotle had believed the brain to be a radiator, idea predominated because it came
Fritsch and Hitzig
o Believed that electricity and the brain were intrinsically tied.
o Did s
Lecture 12, the Forebrain; (2.13.13)
o Directly rostral to the mesencephalon.
o Divided into three distinct regions: the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the
The epithalamus is home to the pineal gland; at the direct center of