Typically, we pump out the groundwater that we need. In the case of excessive withdrawal, the water table can be lowered. Shown here is a local cone of depression. The water table can be lowered over a whole region if pumping and withdrawal outpace r
Large-scale forces help drive the rock cycle
These forces can deform tilt, bend, and break - large sections of hard rock in Earth's crust.
Folds in originally horizontal rock layers are the result of compressive tectonic forces typical of converge
365 million year old trilobites
Hutton lacked a conceptual model of plate tectonics as context for understanding his rock cycle.
He also lacked an ability to put ages on geological materials or to put rates on geological processes.
This porphyritic granite has phenocrysts of feldspar in a fine-grained groundmass.
This conglomerate has large, rounded, gravel-sized clasts of rock cemented by microcrystalline silica.
A human being consumes natural resources throughout life.
Resources are fundamentally important to human life. We might classify them as
Essential Resources soil and water Energy oil, gas, coal, uranium, oil shale, geothermal Metals iron, aluminum,
Mt. Moran (gneiss), Grand Teton National Park
The important factors in metamorphism are 1) temperature 2) pressure (confining and directed) 3) fluids
Tectonic processes at convergent boundaries cause rock to move from shallow to deep levels within
About 70% of Earth is covered with water.
The hydrologic cycle describes the movement of water.
The distribution of water on Earth shows that most water is not fresh, liquid water. The most accessible sources of fresh water for human consumption ar
The cycle of splitting of a supercontinent, opening of an ocean basin, closing of the ocean basin, and collision of continents is known as the Wilson cycle.
The rifting of Pangea can be dated by the extensional features in the Piedmont.
There are solid and dissolved
products of weathering.
Some minerals react chemically to
form new solid products. Feldspars
are weathered to clays. Clays may
stay in place and form soils or be
eroded as clastic sediment.
The dissolved products are
Dinosaur National Monument, Utah
Earth's crust is mostly igneous rock. The very thin surficial layer that humans occupy, however, is mostly sedimentary.
25% igneous 95% igneous
(Note: the volume and area of metamorphic rocks are divided between ign
There are three types of tectonic settings in which copper deposits are known to form. All three deposits, however, are hydrothermal.
Associated with intermediate to felsic magmatic intrusions in continental settings, porphyry copper forms as dissem
The rock cycle is a set of geologic processes relating the formation of the three rock types.
[Processes in red. Rocks in black.]
Weathering = the destructive processes by which rocks are changed on exposure to "the weather." Erosion = the physical
Copper is the third-most consumed metal after iron and aluminum.
Global production of copper metal is about 10 million tons per year. Consumption in the U.S. is a little more than 2 million tons of metal per year.
We use copper in many ways. Most c
Another line of evidence about Earth's interior comes from studying its magnetism.
Earth's outer core generates a magnetic field as a result of the movement of liquid iron in the outer core.
When lava cools and solidifies, any magnetic minerals that
Magnitude 7.4 earthquake, Turkey, 1999. 17,118 people died.
We like to describe the size of earthquakes. Maximum amplitude of ground shaking is used to assign a magnitude given in numbers from 1-10 (Richter scale). The human perception of the ground
The Pacific Northwest is a region of historical volcanism. The Juan de Fuca plate is subducting beneath the North American plate. Relative to the melting basaltic ocean crust, the admixture of melted marine sediments and continental crust leads to an
Horizontal and younger superimposed on older, these layers of sandstone have not been deformed during regional uplift.
Grand Canyon, Arizona
In cross section, the rock units are horizontal and of uniform thickness. There are some unconformities in
Magnitude 7.9 quake. Mexico City, 1985. 9,500 died.
The relative movement of the plates at their boundaries results in deformation of solid rock.
When rock being deformed suddenly breaks along a fault, the two blocks of rock on both sides of the fa
The shape of the landscape (the topography) reflects its underlying structure.
The Michigan Basin is a large-scale basin caused by gently depressed layers of sedimentary rocks. The Basin is a bowlshape
Prescription drugs found in drinking
water across U.S.
The occurrence and persistence of estrogen
in surface and soil water in Virginia
The modern water cycle includes human impact.
Bowen’s Reaction Series
The order for partial melting is the inverse of the order
Factors that influence melting
Rocks of different composition have different melting
temperatures. Felsic minerals melt at lower temperatu
As the main magma body cools, water originally present in low concentrations becomes concentrated in the molten rock because it does not get incorporated into most minerals that crystallize. This late-stage watery magma is also rich in silica and in
Minerals form by crystallization, or the growth of a solid from a gas or liquid whose constituent atoms come together in the proper proportions and take on a crystalline arrangement.
freezing - as a magma
cools below its melting point
As ions enter
We understand NPR stories!
The Man in the Moon?
Rocks are made up of minerals.
Small quake reported at Mount St. Helens
1/18/2008 VANCOUVER, Wash. (AP) - Steam seeping from a
fracture atop the lava dome in Mount St. Helens' crater and the
mountain's first noteworthy seismic activity since 2004 have
caught scientists' attention this
What happened at the very beginning of our universe? From an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense singularity, our universe began expanding and cooling around 13.7 billion years ago at the moment of the Big Bang. Prior to that mome
EVSC280 - Geology
The Big Bang
What happened at the very beginning of our universe? From an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense "singularity", our universe began expanding and cooling around 13.7 billion years ago at the moment