Vector Worksheet
Much of the physical world can be described in terms of numbers. Examples of this are the
mass of an object, its temperature and its volume. These are called scalar quantities. But
some quantities also need a direction to fully describe i
Frames of Reference and Newtons Laws
The cornerstone of the theory of special relativity is the Principle of Relativity:
The Laws of Physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference.
We shall see that many surprising consequences follow from this
More Relativity: The Train and the Twins
EinsteinsDefinitionofCommonSense
As you can see from the lectures so far, although Einsteins theory of special relativity solves the
problem posed by the Michelson-Morley experimentthe nonexistence of an etherit is
Adding Velocities: A Walk on the Train
TheFormula
If I walk from the back to the front of a train at 3 m.p.h., and the train is traveling at 60 m.p.h.,
then common sense tells me that my speed relative to the ground is 63 m.p.h. As we have seen,
this obvi
Special Relativity: Synchronizing Clocks
Suppose we want to synchronize two clocks that are some distance apart.
We could stand beside one of them and look at the other through a telescope, but wed have to
remember in that case that we are seeing the cloc
The Speed of Light
EarlyIdeasaboutLightPropagation
As we shall soon see, attempts to measure the speed of light played an important part in the
development of the theory of special relativity, and, indeed, the speed of light is central to the
theory.
The
Special Relativity
GalileanRelativityagain
At this point in the course, we finally enter the twentieth centuryAlbert Einstein wrote his first
paper on relativity in 1905. To put his work in context, let us first review just what is meant by
relativity in
Special Relativity:
SpecialRelativityinaNutshell
Einsteins Theory of Special Relativity, discussed in the last lecture, may be summarized as
follows:
The Laws of Physics are the same in any Inertial Frame of Reference. (Such frames move at
steady velociti
The Michelson-Morley Experiment
TheNatureofLight
As a result of Michelsons efforts in 1879, the speed of light was known to be 186,350 miles per
second with a likely error of around 30 miles per second. This measurement, made by timing a
flash of light tr
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Discovering Gravity
Michael Fowler 1/22/07
Terrestrial Gravity: Galileo Analyzes a Cannonball Trajectory
From the earliest times, gravity meant the tendency of most bodies to fall to earth. In contrast,
things that leaped upwards, like flames o
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Visualizing Gravity: the Gravitational Field
Michael Fowler 2/14/06
Introduction
Lets begin with the definition of gravitational field:
The gravitational field at any point P in space is defined as the gravitational force felt by a tin
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Working with Gravity: Potential Energy
Michael Fowler 31/1/07
Gravitational Potential Energy near the Earth
We first briefly review the familiar subject of gravitational potential energy near the
Earths surface, such as in a room. The
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Elliptic Orbits: Paths to the Planets
Michael Fowler 1/23/07
Deriving Essential Properties of Elliptic Orbits
From a practical point of view, elliptical orbits are a lot more important than circular
orbits. A spaceship leaving earth an
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Binary Stars and Tidal Forces
Michael Fowler 1/29/07
Binary Stars
Up to this point, weve been considering gravitational attraction between pairs of objects where
one of them was much heavier than the other, and was taken to be fixed. T
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Remarks on General Relativity
Michael Fowler, University of Virginia
Einsteins Parable
In Einsteins little book Relativity: the Special and the General Theory, he introduces
general relativity with a parable. He imagines going into dee
Physics 104 : Discussion 14b
The figure below shows the steps by which
symbol in each square.
235
92
U decays to
207
82
Pb . Enter the correct isotope
The first nuclear reaction utilizing particle accelerators was performed by Cockcroft and Walton.
Accele
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PHYS 232 PS 5 Solutions
P28.26
Name the currents as shown in the figure to the right. Then w + x + z = y . Loop
equations are
200w 40. + 80. x = 0
0
0
80. x + 40. + 360 20. y = 0
0
0
0
FIG. P28.26
+360 20. y 70. z + 80. = 0
0
0
0
Eliminate y by substituti
PHYS 232 PS 6 Solutions
P29.10
(
)
(
)
qE = 1. 1019 C ( 20. N C ) k = 3. 1018 N k
60
0
20
F = qE + qv B = m a
( 3.20 10
( 3. 10
20
(1.92 10
)
(
)(
N ) k (1. 10 C m s) i B = (1. 10
92
82
C m s) i B = ( 5. 10 N ) k
02
18
18
15
)(
)
N k 1. 1019 C 1. 104 m
PHYS 232: Problem Set #9 Solutions.
P32.12
L=
N 2A
N B N BA N A 0N I
=
=0
2 R
I
I
I 2 R
FIG. P32.12
P32.18 I =
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(1 e ) = 9.00 (1 e
R
t
1. 7.
80 00
) = 3.02 A
V R = I = ( 3. ) ( 9. ) = 27. V
R
02 00
2
V L = V R = 120 27. = 92. V
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