Four Theories of the Press
First published in 1956
Reaction to Cold War
Roots in royal control of society where
Planning and Components
Understand and recognize the elements of a six-month
Gain knowledge and ability to plan sales.
Calculate changes in sales as percentages.
Understand the importance of turnover.
MKTG 330 Integrated Mktg Comms
SUMMER 2017 Online Course
Dr. Deborah L. Cowles
VCU School of Business Mission
The mission of the VCU School of Business is to prepare students for successful careers and
lifelong learning by providing management education f
1Why people buy.
Different pieces of the consumer behavior model:
Exchange - trading value between two or more people
value - utilitarian and hed onic
Different ways that you can make people realize they have needs, the ways you d
Pharmeceuticals are always telling you about diseases you never knew existed.
Alternative evaluation - we want to know what are the decision criteria that you use when you evaluate
alternatives. Marketers don't know how you eval
Smaller groups who share similar tastes and values within a larger group.
Belong to more than one subculture
Multiple subcultures- just because they're smaller doesn't make them less significant.
Divergence: stick out from the larger group
Distinct Characteristics of Services
1. Intangibleo Unable to be touched or grasped; not having physical presence.
Ex. A teacher provides service thats intangible
3. Simultaneous Production(makingtheserviceproduct)&
Pricing (Monetary Valuation) (P3)
Cost Driver (P3)
Distinct characteristics of services
2) Non standardized soup cambells tomato soul as a good is standardized all their shits the
3) Simultaneous production and consumption soup produced stored, bought, stored and
Cyclical customer service
It costs an average of five times as much to attract a new customer as to keep an existing one.
Dissatisfied customers tell 10 -16 people about their negative experience
It takes 12 positive experiences to slowly overco
Marketing Exam Outline 
Distribution Channel Objectives
o Value Chain channels in distribution that pass along value
o Supply Chain
o Vertical Conflict conflict between the levels of distribution
Ex: Manufacturer Wholesa
Market Analysis Presentation: Guidelines
The overall purpose of this project/presentation is to identify your target market, and
clearly work through how you came to your final conclusion. All of the facts provided
should be based on relevant/thorough res
1) Marketing Research
a. STEP 1) Establish the need (4 questions)
i. Do we have the resources?
ii. Is the Value greater than the cost?
iii. Is the timing correct?
iv. Does this research already exist?
b. STEP 2) Define the problem
1 Company operates in one country and sells it products in another
a. AKA exporting
2 Set up a foreign subsidiary to handle sales in a country
a. When you have a local sales force in the foreign country that you are exporting to
1) Marketing Channels A set of independent organizations that help make a product
* The question asked is will the customer buy directly from manufacturer or
from 3rd party store*
a. The is value within each member of the supp
Who are we going to go after?
What is our value composition?
*Response towards marketing mix*
Ways we can segment
1) Geographic segmentation based on where you are located
c. Distance If you are a small busines
Steps in the selling process
1) Generate leads (Pre-approach) Research for possible customers to go after
2) Qualify leads (Pre-approach) Understand if the lead is a good prospect
3) Approach The way you contact the customer.
4) Developing solutions
1) Micro Environment- Environment closest to you (Whats changing and whats new)
a. Customers is our customers changing?
b. Company- What is happening internally? Do we have the resources?
c. Suppliers are we able to get the cost we w
Market offering Product, service or experience that fulfill a need
- Tangible goods
- Events people
- Places ideas
Its hard to market a service because theres not a physical product
1) Classification of products (4 c
1 Maximizing sales or market share
2 Maximizing Profit
3 Target return
1) Pricing strategy
a. Customer value pricing Set the price based on what the customer thinks the
i. Good Value Money will go far
ii. Value added Product is
Chapter 12 Advertising
1) Advertising invitation to buy
a. Pay to play
b. 2 types of advertising
i. Institutional ads that promote the brand of the organization
1. Shows why you should choose the organization and NOT a product
ii. Product (3 types)
Chapter 8 Notes: developing new products
1) New Product Development
a. Idea Generation
b. Idea screening (3 steps)
i. Is it real? - is the value real
ii. Can we win? Can we be the best in the industry
iii. Is it worth it? Is it substantial enough to make