Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) Founder of the Jesuits. The Jesuits served as missionaries for
the Pope. Jesuits had broad guidelines which allowed them to adapt to local cultures. Vigorously
opposed the Reformation. Extremely loyal to the Catholic C
Christ and the canonical gospels
Final exam: December 19 from 9-12
Two pillars of Judaism
First pillar - temple. The physical reality of the temple and the anticipation for the
rebuilding of the temple to indicate the coming of the messiah.
Heresy and orthodoxy
Two pillars. Temple and Torah. Oral and written tradition. Emergence for priests. Help by
existence of temple and house of god. Crumbles and the emergence of the teachers of
the Torah in synagogues.
70 ad. Destruction of the temple wi
Early Views on Christ
Pre existent son of God (logos)
Real incarnation does not t well with Platonism and Neoplatonist thought
Eventual theory -> 2 natures
The world has order and meaning. Plato argues there must be a creator. Demiurge
meaning creator. Ca
Christianity and Greek philosophy
Gnostic - Heretical (Thomas). Do not need a hierarchy.
Marcion - rejects the Old Testament as a book about an evil and inferior god. Critical
Montanus - Holy spirit can descend upon any one as long as they pray and
Origen and the Foundation of Christian theology
Cannon of New Testament is not closed.
What books should be included are being discussed. Emergence of strong orthodox
faction. Christianity is misunderstood by the Romans. Christians are not good citizens o
Simmel argument: A secret is a sociological entity that exists in a society. You can lose
the strength of the society if you lose the secret.
If you start to lose the secret, the only way the society can continues to exist is to
develop secretism - double
Constantine and the Conversion of the Empire
From a Roman perspective, Christianity was not on their radar. Most information was
either exaggerated or unclear. For example, the consumption of bread and wine Catholic Christians insisted on transsubstantiat
Orthodoxy and Heresy
Coliseum - Today it is a functioning church. The Pope, on occasion, goes there and
Transition from Paganism to Christianity - Alot of the Coliseum is missing. After
Constantine, stones and marbles were taken from it to
What is God? Trinity.
What does He do? He is the Creator.
How do we know about this? Bible.
What is the bible? The Word of God.
Judaism in the Roman Empire
Mediterranean, 44 BC
Around the time of caesar. After Caesar comes emperor augustus - turns it into
Intro History of Christianity
Around the time of Christ
Insisted on existence of heaven and hell (sheol)
Importance of Messiah
o Yahweh only knows good, therefore has no knowledge of hell.
Insisted on existence of of heaven and hell, get to hell by infaction against yaweh, cannot be
exhaulted if go to hell. Insisted on importance of Messiah
Traditionalists, elite group who insisted on correct practice of rituals (o
1483-1546, inspired by Wycliffe and Jan Huss, had a profound conversion but was disenchanted
by corrupt monks, wanted to reform church, specifically Indulgences (cannot pay to move faster
out of purgatory), wanted Sola Fida (Faith alon
Autobiography, Ignatius of Loyola, 1522 Life of Ignatius, converted after getting shot and going
Yet he kept getting worse, not being able to eat, and with the other symptoms that usually point
to death. When St. John's day came, because
The Edict, Michael Cerularius, 1054
Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, reaction to excommunication by Pope causing Schism of
1054 splitting Eastern and Western Churches
Having their origin in the West, they arrived in this devout and God-prot
Controversy over whether the Secular state had the authority to appoint ecclesiastic offices
during the Middle Ages. Gregorian reforms wanted to return power of investiture back to the
Church. Henry IV did not accept this los
Pope Leo III
750-816, Goes to east to seek help from Byzantine emperor but emperor is too weak,
instead goes to Charlemange who rules over dynasty of Carolingians who will only agree to
help if first coronated to become emperor. Leo makes Charlemang
Symeon the Stylite
459, was a monk who took monasticism to such an extreme he was kicked out of the
monestary. When to live in the desert, people followed him. So in order to escape to
solitude, he built and lived on top of a column which would he b
Augustine of Hippo
354-430, Founding father of Western Theology. Chose to become a Bishop instead of a
Senator, starts writing western theological writings when stationed in Hippo (in Africa).
Battled against Donatists and Manichaeism
103-165AD, wrote the First Apology demanding a just inspection of Christianity by
Romans, because rulers should honor and love the truth. Logos, the ultimate reason came
in Jesus Christ who is based in love and reason. Eventually died
Western theology: Augustine of Hippo (354-430) (Key Term)
Primary father of the western church - Responsible for the splitting into two branches.
Believed the way to church is organized with some variation of theology.
Held a marginal role in eastern theo