Sex, Sexuality, and Gender
People in most societies tend to believe very strongly that their particular cultural beliefs and
practices regarding sex, sexuality, and gender reflect natural, biologically de
Module 12 Making Meaning in the World: Religion and the Arts
In this module we will look at how people make sense of their experiences and give meaning to those
experiences. We will examine religion, the most commo
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Module 6 Foodways and Economics
A subsistence strategy is how we transform the energy of the physical environment into food.
Many anthropologists consider subsistence strategies the
Module 9 Notes
In egalitarian societies, no individual or group has more access to resources, power, or prestige.
There are differences among individuals such as in skills and personality but
Module 11: Kinship, Marriage, and the Family
Marriage refers to the customs, rules and obligations that establish a relationship between two or more
individuals, between them and any children they may have
Module 1: What is Anthropology?
Section 1.1 What is Anthropology?
Anthropology is the study of human beings through space and time. It is a comparative, holistic discipline
that examines all societies whether prese
Module 4 Notes
In this module, we study the relationships between the individual, biology, and culture and what it
means when we say that humans are biocultural beings.
Personality and the Life Cycle:
Module 3: Language and Culture
In this module we learn about language and culture. Communication is the transmission of information.
Humans communicate in several, most obviously through language, but also through
Module 5 Notes
How Cultures Change
Anthropologists have traditionally defined three main methods of cultural evolution or change:
o Innovation a variation on an existing cultural pattern that is accepted or learned
Module 2 Studying Culture
Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods
All research methods are quantitative or qualitative.
o Quantitative Methods: research methods that gather information that may be counted
In what type of situation, captive, zoo, semi-free, or field studies, are most studies done today?
o Field study
What is the Paradox of sociality
o Why would any animal live in a group if the evolutionary bottom line is individual mating success
What are the characteristics of modern Homo sapiens skull?
Modern humans have a high forehead and a round skull shaped like a soccer ball. We have a small face, small
teeth, small brow ridges, and a projecting chin. Our skeletons are also quite grac
ESTRUS - the period of time when female animals are sexually excited and receptive to mating. Estrus occurs
around the time of ovulation in many species
DIASTEMA - A space between two teeth. Space between the top incisors and canines that allow
Review the different results from disruptive selection; directional selection; and stabilizing selection
Johann Blumenbach recognized how many racial types?
Read how people living in high altitudes are able to change their body to adapt to their envi
In the study of humans what is a physical anthropologist concerned with?
study human biology, both past and present, to better understand human origins, human evolution, and human biological
variation. Of course, humans are both biological and cultu
What are the two characteristics that define a hominin?
o Pranthropus and Australopithecus, aethiopicus, bosei, robustus
o Australopithecus, anamensis, afarenis, africanus, garhi
What type if canines do hominins have?
What is the basic structure of all life?
When did prokaryote cells first appear?
3.7 billion years ago
What are the characteristics of Somatic cells?
STUDY ALL EXERCISES DONE: CLASSIFICATION CHART PRIMATES; LOCOMOTION; TEETH
Recognize pictures of primates from slides and text book; know new world monkey, old world monkey, lemurs, tarsier,
lesser apes, and greater apes.
Be able to use th
Who was the English surveyor who developed stratigraphic correlation?
o William Smith
What environments are the best for fossilization?
o The plant or animal must be encased in a substance that prevents destruction or erosion. Ice, tar, or layer
KLASIES RIVER MOUTH
REVIEW THE COLOR PICTURES:
P. AETHIOPICUS - Black Skull
AU. GARHI Surprise
Review Characteristics shared by primates. Do we have claws or nails?
o Have 5 digits
o Nails not claws
o Large complex brain
o Opposable thumb
o Stereoscopic vision and colored vision
o Long infancy period
o Prehensile hands and feet
o Dental g
The four forces of evolution
Mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, natural selection
How are gene flow and genetic drift different?
Who was the researcher who found Pithecanthropus erectus in the late 1880s?
What modern features did Nariokotome Boy (Homo ergaster) have?
Tall for a 12 year old Turkana Boy
Homo habilis is similar to which fossil?
What are the dates f
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND METHODS
THE CHALLENGE OF SCALE AND LEVELS OF
Global ecology is a HUGE system to try to understand.
ontemporary discussions about human impact on the global
environment must involve ecosystem mode
Locations of the Humid Tropics
Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems
Most are located north of the equator
Three major tropical rain forests
South American Rainforest
THEORIES OF HUMAN-HABITAT INTERACTION
Main themes concerning people and their interaction with
The problem with these themes is that they see the
relationship between humans and their
Securing and Managing Water
Exploitation of groundwater
Harnessing of surface runoff
Diversion of water to agricultural fields
Flexible Forms of Social Organization
Nomadic Lifestyle [gr
Human Adaptability to Grasslands
Grasslands occur both naturally and as a result of human
intervention, both intentional and unintentional.
Grasslands have inadequate supplies of precipitation for
agriculture but are not yet as arid
Studies of Human Adaptability:
Where is the Arctic?
Whats in a name?
Eskimo will not be used in reference to the Arctic peoples.
Eskimo means eater of raw flesh which is considered a
Instead we will use the te