What was left out?
no jaws (sucking mouth); no paired appendages; no stomach; gills; 2-chambered heart; external
placoid (toothlike) scales; fins; g
Resource Guide for Science: Giving Credit Where Credit is Due
Citing your sources properly is very important. In this course, you will gain practice using the citation
format set forth by the Ecological Society of America (ESA), a publisher of primary r
Try this Concept Check, from:
Campbell, N. A. , J. B. Reece, L. A. Urry, M. L. Cain, S. A. Wasserman, P. V. Minorsky, and R.
B. Jackson. 2008. Biology: A Custom Edition for Bellevue Community College. Pp. 479.
Pearson Custom Publishing, San Francisco.
ONLINE SUPPLEMENTS TO INVERTEBRATE DISSECTIONS
Penis fencing video: http:/www.spike.com/video/flatworms-penis/2458366
Slug sex: http:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=GSW9kWIRCOQ
Video of clam dissection: http:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=KGivT26ofPM&feature=related
GLOSSARY OF PHYLOGENETIC TERMS
Phylogenetic systematics = the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms using shared
Phylogenetic tree = a branching diagram that portrays the hypothesized evolutionary relationships and
The small intestine has two roles. It continues to digest food received from the stomach and it
absorbs the nutrients. The small intestine chops, mixes and rolls the chyme as it moves towards
the large intestine. It is folded and has a hug
Chem.262 Homework # 2
1) Which of the following pairs are resonance structures?
2) Which of the following pairs are resonance structures?
3) Which of the following is an allylic cation?
Chapter 14 & 15
Aromaticity is a property associated with the extra stability of certain types of
Huckels Rule (4n +2 electron):
A molecule is aromatic if:
1. It is planar.
2. It is monocyclic.
3. It has 4n + 2 electrons, wher
Chapter 12 and 13
Since spectroscopy is based on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with a
. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR):
The part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum that you are most familar with is
General formula of alkanes is CnH 2n+2.
n=1CH4 Meth + ane, Methane
n=2 C2H6 Eth + ane , Ethane
n=3 C3H8 Prop + ane, n-Propane
n=4 C4H10 but + ane, n-Butane
n=5 pent + ane, n-Pentane
Bonding in alkanes:
Carbon has sp3 hybridization in alkanes. The
Compounds that contain a metal-carbon bond, R-M, are known as "organometallic"
Organometallic compounds of Li, Mg (Grignard reagents) are amongst some of the most
important organic reagents.
How free energy changes during a reaction
The lowest point of the
graph is when the system
is at equilibrium (G = 0)
G for reactions that reach equilibrium
If G = 0, then
G = - RTlnK
Spontaneous processes tend to move toward:
Minimum enthalpy (H)
Maximum entropy (S)
1st Law of Thermodynamics:
In any spontaneous process, energy is conserved.
*2nd Law of Thermodynamics*
There is an inherent
-It was created in the 19th century to describe the
operation of steam engines in order to set forth the
limits of what they can accomplish.
- These principles were soon generalized into what
CHEM 163 General Chemistry III: Spring 2010
(PRACTICE) MIDTERM #3
True or False (3 pts each): Carefully read each statement and decide whether it is true or
false. FOR FULL CREDIT, rewrite the false statements to make it true.
1. Both standard molar entro
CHEM 163 General Chemistry III: Fall 2010
(PRACTICE) MIDTERM #1
True or False (2 pts each): Carefully read each statement and decide whether it is true or false.
FOR FULL CREDIT, rewrite the false statements to make it true.
1. The dissociati
Slide for Fig 1
Figure 1 is a schematic drawing of a biochemical system for wastewater treatment and
simultaneous CH4 (methane) production based on the bioelectrochemical reduction of CO2 (carbon
dioxide gas). The bioelectrical chemical
CHEM163: STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM #3
A. 1st Law of Thermodynamics and the concept of enthalpy (H)
B. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Concept of entropy (S)
Qualitative guidelines for entropy
How STotal relates to spontaneous chemical reactio
STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM #1
General Properties of Chemical Equilibrium
A. What is equilibrium?
B. Calculations involving Kc, Kp and Q
C. Le Chteliers Principle
If given a specific change in a system at equilibrium, predict the direction the rea
Electrolytic cells require an INPUT of energy
A non-spontaneous reaction is forced to occur by the
passage of an electric current through a solution.
The external circuit must contain a dir
harnessed chemical reaction which produces an
electric current (energy) from the flow of electrons
also called Voltaic Cells or Batteries
anode - electrode where oxida
Redox Reactions: Transfer of es
Oxidation/Reduction reactions (redox reactions) involve the
transfer of e- from