Homework due 2/17/09 Name _ 1. What hormone is released by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney? What causes the release of this hormone? What does this hormone do in the blood? How does the release of this hormone ultimately lead to water retention?
Homework due 4/23/09 Name _ 1. Draw a dopamine synapse and label the various dopamine receptors that exist. Also show the dopamine transporter and an axoaxonic synapse. What POTENTIALLY could go wrong to cause dopamine over-activity in the synapse. What d
Scientific American Homework due 020309 Name _ Siegel, J. (2003). Why do we sleep? Scientific American, pp 92-97. 1. What was the overall conclusion of why we sleep in the articles introduction 2. Although sleep is hard to define, it is easy to recognize
Homework due 2/10/09 Name _ Wright, K. (2004). Times of our lives. Sci. Amer. 42-49. 1. How long a period of time would be timed by an endogenous interval timer. Name some behaviors that are timed by such an endogenous clock.
2. What exactly is the striat
TYPE 2 DIABETES
S PECIAL S ECTION
earnest. To paraphrase Winston Churchill, in the area of common disease genetics we are certainly not at the end, nor are we even at the beginning of the end, but we may, perhaps, be at the end of the beginning.
Homework due 1/15/09 Name _ I did not cover all the information ( or use all the terms) that I want you to address below. Some of it is in the book and some was covered in BNS I. However, if you cant come up with some of the answers, be sure to ask a ques
Homework due 3/10/09 Name _ 1. Differentiate between long-term and short-term signals that regulate hunger. What is the physical nature of these signals? Which class of signal is more compelling? Why do you think that should be the case?
2. What breakdown
Homework due 1/20/09 Name _ 1. What is a tissue section? Why is it used? In what planes of the XYZ coordinate system (X = medial,/lateral, Y= dorsal/ventral, Z = anterior/posterior) are the following tissue sections: 1. Saggital, 2.Horizontal & 3. Coronal
Homework due 1/22/09 Name _ 1. What did lack of sleep do to the people who were trying to break the world record for staying awake? How long did they typically have to sleep to recover? Did they make up all the sleep that they lost? What kind of conclusio
1. Draw the cerveau isole produced by Bremer in 1937? How was the cat affected by this brain transection in terms of its body movements, brain waves, pupillary dilation, and ability to visually track a moving object?
2. Draw an encephale isole? How was th
Homework due 1/29/09 Name _ 1. Name the 3 brain mechanisms important in the onset of S-sleep.
2. Describe how the nucleus of the solitary tract promotes sleep and describe the situations under which this sleep promoting area of the brain is activated. Is
Homework due 2/3/09 Name _ 1. What is insomnia? How do we determine whether a person has insomnia or not? What is pseudoinsomnia and how is it treated. What are two common causes of insomnia?
2. What is sleep apnea, what causes it, and how is it treated?
Homework due 2/5/09 Name _ 1. What evidence suggests that sleep may be a way of repairing oxidative damage due to high levels of metabolism?
2. One theory is that animals sleep to conserve energy when we arent doing anything important and to keep them ina
Homework due 2/10/08 Name _ 1. What is the relationship between the cyclicity of circadian clocks outside the brain and that of the SCN? How does the SCN control the clocks in tissues outside the CNS? What happens to the phase relationships of these other
Homework due 4/21/09 Name _ 1. What is the difference between a neurosis and a psychosis? What is insanity? What does the term schizophrenia really mean (what doesnt it mean?)? What is dementia praecox and what is its etymology?
2. Describe the three clas
Homework due 4/14/09 Name _ Nestler, E. J. , & R. C. Malenka (March 2004). The addicted brain. Scientific American, 78-85. 1. Describe the general symptoms and personal outcomes that often accompany being addicted to a drug.
2. Do animals like the same dr
Homework due 4/14/09 Name _ 1. What is the function of the APP gene? Why do we think this? Why must the APP protein be continuously replaced? How is this normally accomplished?
2. How is the APP protein disposed of, if the neuron makes too much of it or i
Homework due 2/24/09 Name _ 1. What gastric hormone aids the "sweating" of digestive juices (which are mainly water) into the digestive tract after eating? (hint. It's the same hormone that causes the increase in mucous inside your nose when you have a co
Homework due Feb 26, 2009 Name _ 1. What type of cell stores fats? What are the locations called that contain these clusters of these cells? How do the numbers of these cells change when you get fat?
2. After glucose leaves the blood and enters the inters
Homework due 4/26/08 Name _ 1. What are the typical and atypical antipsychotics. Where in the synapse are they thought to exert their effects? Describe some important clinical side effects of both classes of antipsychotics? Since the atypical antipsychoti
Homework due 3/10/09 Name _ Lazar, M. A. (2005) How obesity causes diabetes: Not a tall tale. Science 307, 373-375. 1. Distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes (try Wikipedia: http:/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page for more complete explanations). Wh
Homework due 3/12/09 Name _ 1. What organs secrete ghrelin and PYY. Under what conditions is secretion maximal? What message are these hormones sending to the hypothalamus? How do these hormones work in the hypothalamus?
2. Describe the "lipostatic" mecha
Homework due 3/12/09 Name _ Hill, J. O., Wyatt, H. R., Reed, G. W., and Peters, J. C. (2003). Obesity and the environment: Where do we go from here. Science 299, 853-855. 1. What is the percentage of people in the U.S. that are overweight, How has this ch
Homework due 3/17/09 Name _ 1. What behavioral and physiological effects do high and low levels of leptin have in mice? Present this in the form of an overall model of leptin action.
2. Where are leptin receptors located in the brain? Why does this brain
Homework due 3/19/09 Name _ 1. Define acquisition and extinction. What causes each?
2. What are some unlearned biological reinforcers? What is a powerful learned reinforcer that motivates much of human behavior? Which are there more of, biological or nonb
Homework due 3/24/09 Name _ 1. Draw diagrams to illustrate the key brain areas and how they interact in a) learning the positive hedonic value of a stimulus, b) learning the negative hedonic value of a stimulus, c) learning the positive consequences of on
Homework due 3/31/09 Name _ 1. Describe major effects in the brain of each of the following drugs in the brain. What are some of the common names for these drugs: 1. Opiates 2. Psychostimulants (amphetamine, cocaine) 3. Depressants (alcohol, barbiturates,
Homework due 4/2/09 Name _ 1. What structure is important in the consolidation of declarative memories? Is this structure involved in the consolidation of procedural memories?
2. How is procedural memory similar to and different from reference memory in t
Homework due 4/7/09 Name _ 1. Why do we need an animal model for human long-term relational memories? What is the most studied animal model for studying relational long-term memories? Describe the rat's task in this model. How good are rats at this task?
Homework due 4/9/09 Name _ 1. If LTP is the basis for the formation of long-term relational memories in the association cortex, how would this LTP likely differ from that which occurs in the hippocampus?
2. What percentage of people will show cognitive im