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responses. This is called the assumption of monotonicity.4 The idea of a
construct map forces the measurer to take careful consideration of the
theory concerning the construct of interest. A clear definition of what is
being measured should be based on th
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probability that an observed differ  ence or relationship would be
found by chance. Soft data A characteristic of qualitative research. Data
such as peoples ideas and opinions. Stakeholders People with an
interest in the research being undertaken. For ex
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our definition of the construct. The terms index is often used in the
formative case.) CONSTRUCT MODELING: THE FOUR BUILDING BLOCKS
APPROACH We now outline one particular approach to developing
measuresConstruct Modeling. We do not claim that this is a
un
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which is designed to guide the researcher through any ethical issues
they may face. There are six key principles of ethical social research:
Research should be designed, reviewed and undertaken to ensure
integrity and quality; Research staff and subjects
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with attention paid to the theory, procedures, and the challenges on the
use of that particular methodology. It is hoped that readers will come
away from each chapter with a greater understanding of the
methodology being addressed as well as an understand
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is important to know, whether the findings are valid or came about by
chance. Statistical tests See section on statistical analysis for a
description of the most common statistical tests. Survey design Survey
design covers the definition of all aspects of
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Dependant variables In a research project which seeks to establish
cause and effect between variables, the potential causal variable is
known as the independent variable, and the variable(s) where effects
are under scrutiny is depend  ent. Descriptive st
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interpretations that have defence and consequences. This book shows
this tension there are many sophisticated methods now available but
they require an advanced set of understandings to be able to interpret
meaning and can be technically complex. With mor
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a number of statistical approaches. Primary source A primary source is a
document, speech, or other sort of evidence writ  ten, created or
otherwise produced during the time under study. Q Qualitative
Concerned with a quality of information, qualitative
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on a theme. Attrition A reduction in the number of participants during
the course of a study. If more participants withdraw from one group
than another group, this can introduce bias and threaten the internal
validity of the research. Attribution The asso
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level (usually 95%). (See Statistical Analysis). Confidence level The
confidence level tells you how sure you can be that this inference is
correct (See section on Statistical Analysis). Construct Something that
exists theoretically but is not directly ob
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highest bidder. 60 61 Responsibility Everyone involved in a research
project or process is responsible for maintaining good ethical standards.
It is also good practice within project teams for there to be a space for
ethical issues to be aired. Position A
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THEORY T. Teo (Ed.), Handbook of Quantitative Methods for Educational
Research, 330. 2013 Sense Publishers. All rights reserved. MARK
WILSON & PERMAN GOCHYYEV 1. PSYCHOMETRICS Psychometrics is
the study of the measurement of educational and psychological
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identifiable points along a continuous span. The advantage of laying out
the construct on the construct map is that it helps the measurer make
the construct explicit. Activities that are carried out in the construct
map phase can also be described as cons
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relationship where variation in one variable causes variation in another.
Glossary 62 63 Chisquare Chisquare is a family of distributions
commonly used for significance testing. The most common variants are
the Pearson chisquare test and the likelihood
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paper All Rights Reserved 2013 Sense Publishers No part of this work
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written p
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methods in the current Handbook. I referred to it often and it became
the book most often stolen by colleagues and students. It became the
go to book, a first place to investigate the meaning of methods and
begin to understand what to do next. This Handbo
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assumptions, how the methods relate to other similar methods, but
most important show how the methods can be interpreted. That so
many of the most commonly used methods are in one book is a major
asset. The methods range from measurement models (CTT, IRT)
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data resulting from these activities. Educational research has a strong
tradition of employing stateoftheart statistical and psychometric
(psychological measurement) techniques. Commonly referred to as
quantitative methods, these techniques cover a ran
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(2,6,9,32,74 = 9). Method/Methodology While method describes what
you as a researcher have done, method  ology is about your reasons for
doing it. Metaanalysis A statistical technique for combining and
integrating the data derived from a number of exper
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Based on the obtained responses, the measurer tries to locate the
respondent on the wealth continuum, such as claiming that the
respondent is between able to buy an average laptop and able to
buy an average motorcycle. A SURVEY OF TYPES AND PURPOSES OF
ME
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constructs. What makes it possible and attractive to measure the
construct is the belief and understanding on the part of the measurer
that the amount or degree of the construct varies among people. The
belief should be based on a theory. Respondents to t
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data being gathered feeds into the aims of the study. Reliability The
extent to which the same result will be repeated/achieved by using the
same measure. Research plan This is the researchers guidebook for the
project, and the yardstick against which the
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Trend studies establish a pattern over time to detect shifts and changes
and are valuable in describing longterm changes in a population.
Triangulation A multimethod approach, using different methods in
order to focus on the research topic from differen
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measurement might also differ. One classification of measurement
purposes in the educational context is into normreferenced and
criterionreferenced interpretations. Normreferenced interpretations
are relevant when the measurer wishes to locate a respond
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details). Crosstabulating The process of analysing data according to one
or more key variables. A common example is to analyse data by the
gender of the research subject or respondent, so that you can compare
findings for men with findings for women. Als
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Much of the following development (in fact virtually all of it up to the
part about the measurement model), can be readily applied to the
latter situation alsofor more information on the categorylike
situation see Magidson & Vermunt (2002). There are man
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approach (Wilson, 2005): this is a fullcycle production measurement
framework consisting of four building blocks: the construct map, the
items design, the outcome space, and the measurement model. The
construct modelling approach provides an explicit gui
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inferences about whether relationships observed in a sample are likely
to occur in the wider popu  lation from which that sample was drawn.
Informed consent The process of obtaining voluntary participation of
individuals in re  search based on a full un
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and assists them to plan to achieve them without taking a particular
position in the discussion. Factor Anything that contributes causally to a
result; a number of factors determined the outcome. Feminist
research Research into the relationship and unders
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use(s) of the measures usually comes before the measurement
development process itself. We will assume that the measurer has an
underlying latent phenomena of interest, which we will call the
construct (also called propensity, latent variable, person para
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introducing new research or a new perspective on the research.
Longitudinal research A research process, which is repeated on several
occasions over a period of time, as far as possible replicating the chosen
methodology each time. The key aim of such res
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categories male and female. These two groups can be assigned code
numbers 0 and 1. Normal distribution A theoretical frequency
distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bellshaped curve symmetrical about the mean. Stat  isticians
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pregnant. It is possible that in some domains the construct, according
to an underlying theory, has discrete categories or a set of unordered
categories. A respondent might be a member of the one of the latent
classes rather than at a point on a continuou
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discipline within which theories, laws, and generalisations and the
experiments performed in support of them are formulated. Parameter
A quantity (such as the mean or variance) that characterises a statisti cal population and that can be estimated by calc