Oceanography 102, Winter 2007 I. Ocean Currents Temperature and salinity properties of the Gulf Stream and how they originate Role of Gulf Stream in affecting European climate Two-way relationship between Gulf Stream and N. Atlantic deep water format
Sea Change: Can sea life adapt?
Story by Craig Welch
ANTA BARBARA, Calif. The violet bottom-dwelling, prickle-backed spheres wriggling
in the tank in Gretchen Hofmanns lab arent really known for their speed.
But these lowly sea urchins adapt so quickly
The sea is rising
Rising sea level is consistent with
Rate of sea level rise since the
mid-19th century has been
larger than the mean rate during
the previous two millennia (high
1901 to 2010, global mean sea
Its cold.theres no global
Understanding the difference between weather and climate
Whats the difference between
weather and climate?
Weather is what conditions of
The sea is rising
! Rising sea level is consistent
! Rate of sea level rise since
the mid-19th century has
been larger than the mean
rate during the previous two
millennia (high confidence)
! Slope? Rate?
! 1901 to 2010, global mean
How much do you know about
What is climate change?
Climate change includes global warming and everything else that
increasing greenhouse gas amounts will affect
What are the causes?
Natural or anthropogenic (due to human activities)
What are the impacts of sea level
! 33% of coastal land will be lost in next 100 years (IPCC)
! Over 600 million people live in coastal areas that are less than 10 meters
above sea level
! Two-thirds of the worlds cities that have populations over f
Whats happening in the Arctic?
! 2012 - Lowest extent
of ice recorded
! Since 1979, more
than 20% of Arctic
ice has melted away
in response to
increased surface air
! Loss of area approx.
equal to 1/3 of
! Sea ice
Its true, Earths climate is always
changing and it is part of a natural
Variations in solar
Changes in the
Dust & ash
What role does the ocean play in
Oceans absorb and store heat and greenhouse gasses
Special properties of water
Oceans transport heat and greenhouse gas
Thermohaline circulation (THC)
Fact Sheet: The Ocean in a High CO2 World
What is ocean acidification?
The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, leading to a
warmer climate. But there is another direct impact of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. It is
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Assignment #4 due We
Ocean 102 Study Guide 2 Matthew Maury was the first guy to write book on oceanography. Used depth sounding to find the route for the transatlantic cable. Thomson used leadline sounding, trenches. Wanted to map the sea floor. Sunken continent. Belie
ATLANTIC COD: Natural history Once this was the worlds largest and most productive fishery It existed on both sides of the N. Atlantic Provided one of the major food sources for the pilgrims A key economic factor in early America especially in Massac
Oceanography 102 Unit III Study Notes Oceans in a Warmer World: - absorbs/release heat/CO2 - current transport - increased evaporation from tropical ocean warming/cooling, salinity effects. - Reduced reflection from reduced sea ice - Plankton: o Export ca
Notes from Readings Deep-sea Circulation - on average, the ocean is about 4km deep - Near the surface and in the mixed layer, oceanographers use drifters and stationary current meters to measure flow in the slow flow. - Below the slow flow, they use sea s
2. Why do we think that life originated in the deep-sea vents
a. The deep-sea is an extreme environment, extreme chemicals,
temperatures, chemicals yet there is a lot of life there.
b. The time that life arose, the earth was a violent place, constantly
1. The Scientific Method
a. Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996)
b. The structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962)
c. Concept of paradigm shift
i. The successive transition from one paradigm to another via
revolution is the usual developmental pattern of mature scienc
o Built two more models of the Trieste, upgraded.
Deep-sea program loses its way
o Lots of people who wanted a new vehicle
Technical limitations of Trieste
But how should it be different?
Trieste-like deep-diving capability?
Quiz for week 1 on reading, and maybe course logistics
The Changing Oceans (Process)
How we learned what we know?
o Scientific method
The person involved and their discovery process
o Personality characteristics
o Choices they faced
Some great discoverie
Study Guide Quiz #1 / Week #1
Cousteau The Silent World
Emile Gagnan and J.Y. Cousteau invented an automatic compressed-air diving
lung or the aqualung
o The aqualung automatically fed him an increased compressed air to meet
the new pressure layer
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Welcome to Ocean 102!
The Changing Oceans
Instructor: Dr. Mikelle Nuwer
Email: [email protected]
Oce: MSB 262
Course Website: hHps:/catalyst.uw.edu/workspace/mrasmuss/18105/
Who I am and how I got here