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Chapter 16
Probability
Sometimes we say, probably it may rain or Probably he may get more than 90% in the
examination" etc. These are elements of certainty. Means we are not certain about some
things. In mathemati
An event is any set of outcomes of a random experiment; that is, any
subset of the sample space of the experiment.
The probability of a given event is the sum of the probabilities of
the outcomes in the event.
If all outcomes are equally likely, then the
Econ 520: An Introduction to Matlab
Keisuke Hirano
September 14, 2006
In this course you will be using Matlab to perform numerical computations for the problem
sets. Matlab is a matrix programming language: a variable is considered a matrix by default, an
Probability and Statistics
Random Chance
A tossed penny can land either heads up or tails up. These are mutually exclusive events, i.e. if the coin lands
heads up, it cannot also land tails up on the same toss. It is impossible to determine the forces ope
Example 12 Tossing a point from f1; : : : ; ng at random, that is each point is equally likely to be
chosen. In this case, the probability measure is given by
P(i) =
1
;
n
i = 1; : : : ; n:
Example 13 Choosing a point from the interval (a; b) at random, t
492
6 SEQUENCES, SERIES, AND PROBABILITY
52. How many committees of 4 people are possible from a
group of 9 people if
(A) There are no restrictions?
(B) Both Juan and Mary must be on the committee?
(C) Either Juan or Mary, but not both, must be on the
com
Chapter 12
Introduction to Simulation Using
MATLAB
A. Rakhshan and H. Pishro-Nik
12.1
Analysis versus Computer Simulation
A computer simulation is a computer program which attempts to represent the real world based
on a model. The accuracy of the simulati