Microbiology 445: Midterm 1
Please provide a complete and succinct answer for each part of every
question. Put your name on every page. Fill in blanks where indicated for
certain questions. We will not be lenient with spelling for acronyms, so
1. capsid and genome, yes
2. polymerase, mammalian cells lack RNA-dependent RNA polymerases
4. Innate: b,c,e; Adaptive: a,c,d
6. Animal cells
7. Humoral or antibodies
8. Peyers patch or lymphoid follicle
9. MHC class I
10. They are non-envelop
by W. Ford Doolittle
_ harles Darwin contended more than a century
ago that all modern species diverged from a
more limited set of ancestral groups, which
themselves evolved from still fewer progeni-
tors and so on back to the beginning of l
INSIGHTS | P E R S P E C T I V E S
REFERENCES AND NOTES
1. K. Henle et al., Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 124, 60 (2008).
2. European Environment Agency, EU 2010 Biodiversity
Baseline (Tech. Rep. No. 12/2010, EEA, Copenhagen,
3. L. G. Carvalheiro et al.
INSIGHTS | B O O K S
Maureen A. OMalley
Cambridge University Press,
2014. 279 pp.
and the extensive cooperation between microbes has provided a unique perspective
on the units of selection debate. Other
Reviews and Resources
Philosophy of Microbiology
Maureen OMalley. Cambridge University
Press, 2014, 269 p., $31.99 (paperback).
Is there really such an animal as a philosophy of microbiology? I am not convinced, but fortunately that is not wh
Study questions for lecture 1
What is the connection between what an organism eats (uses as electron donor) and
breathes (uses as electron acceptor) and nutrient cycles? Are all steps in nutrient
cycles due to organisms catabolism, or are some biosyn
Study questions for lecture 7
The first step in sulfate reduction is to activate sulfate by converting it to
adenosylphosphosulfate (APS), hydrolyzing ATP. Why is this necessary?
Hydrogen cycling is apparently used by sulfate reducers to gain par
Study questions for lecture 2
In catabolism, are the products generally more or less ordered than the substrates?
How does this relate to energy generation and G?
The products of anabolism are cell material.
Study questions for lecture 4
Contrast the heterotrophic view of the origin of life with the
How can the oxidation of H2 on the outside of the cell lead to the generatio
Study questions for lecture 5
How would you grow a methanogen or an acetogen? What conditions would you
use and what would you provide as nutrients or substrates for growth?
Methane is a greenhouse gas. What effect does it have today, and what effe
Study questions for lecture 3
In molecular phylogeny, what do we mean by evolutionary distance?
What would an unrooted tree of only two organisms look like? (Answer is below).
Add a midpoint root. Now what
Study questions for lecture 6
In the methanogenic pathway, which steps are energy-yielding (have a negative G)
and which steps are energy-requiring (have a positive G)?
What is the difference between hydrogenotrophi
Study questions for lecture 9
In the anaerobic ecosystem of sediments, bioreactors, etc., what is the difference
between having sulfate as electron acceptor and having CO2 as electron acceptor?
What are sulfate redu
The morphology of a volcano is strongly controlled by the viscosity of the magma. The
Hawaiian shield volcano shown above is composed of interlayered basalt flows. Slope
angles typcally range between 7-10 for shield volcanoes.
The slope angle o
weathered volcanic tuff
Over time rock will physically and chemically break-down to produce sediment and new
minerals that are stable at the earths surface. Weathering processes tend to be gradual
and not easily observed over periods of days
vi y re
vi y re
In Southern China
A landscape characterized by
numerous caves, sinkholes,
fissures, and underground
Forms in regions with
THE ASTEROID BELT AND
WHY THEY ARENT PLANETS OR MOONS
THE ASTEROID BELT
There are two asteroid belts: the Main Asteroid Belt and
The Kuiper Belt is located at the edge of the solar system
past the orbits of all eight planets
vi y re
vi y re
How and when did the Earth and Solar System Form?
a. Supernova and formation of
primordial dust cloud.
b. Condensation of primordial
dust. Forms disk-shaped
nubular cloud rotating counterclockwise.
c. Proto sun and planets begin to f
Announcements March 27th, 2017 (Welcome!)
1. The syllabus has been uploaded onto
2. Please note that laboratory commences next week. I have
uploaded all laboratory exercises onto my web site. Please
ESS 101: Introduction to Geology
Instructor: Terry Swanson
161 Johnson Hall
M 10:30-11:20 am and W 9:30-10:30am (or by appointment).
Text: Physical Geo
Name: _ Period: _ Date: _
Mineral Identification Lab
Answer each of the following and identify the name of the minerals described. Refer to the
Mineral Identification Key.
Part I: Mineral Search
What is the hardness o
1. Gas and Oil Company Sponsored Videos
(you can directly link to the video by clicking on the links below)
Information video on hydraulic fracturing (Video provides an overview on the
technology of hydraulic fracturing. Video produced by Marathon Oil Cor
Independent Study - DNA to Protein (day 2)
I. Bacterial Gene Expression Translation (p. 185 - 190)
Ribosomes read mRNA; facilitate conversion of the encoded information into proteins
The role of mRNA - carries encoded instructions for synthesis of a polyp
Independent Study Guide - Microscopy and Cell Structure
I. Microscopes (SECTION 3.1) - know big picture only
Light Microscopes - maximum magnification ~1000X
Electron Microscopes - maximum magnification ~ 100,000X
Principles of Light Microscopy - bright-f
Independent Study - Food Microbiology
I. Principles of Food Microbiology (CHAP 30 INTRO)
II. Factors Influencing the Growth of Microorganisms in Foods (SECTION 30.1)
In general, bacteria grow faster than yeasts, which grow faster than molds
Independent Study Guide - Metabolism
I. Principles of Metabolism (SECTION 6.1)
Cells must: (FIGURE 6.1)
Synthesize new components (anabolism/biosynthesis)
Harvest energy and convert it to a usable form (catabolism)
Exergonic vs endergo
Independent Study Guide - Metabolism (cont.)
I. Catabolism of Organic Compounds Other than Glucose (The Elegance of Metabolism) (SECTION 6.6)
Compounds enter the central metabolic pathways as precursor metabolites (FIGURE 6.24)
II. Enzymes (SECTION 6.2)