Philosophy 201
Fall 2007
Exam #1 ANSWERS
Silverstein
106 Total Points I. (2 points each) 1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. F 8. T
II. (3 points each) 9. Converse Accident (1 pt for Hasty Generalization) 11. Begging the Question (or Circular Reaso
NAME Philosophy 201 - Elementary Logic Fall 2007 Instructor: Harry Silverstein Exam #1 Informal Logic I. True or False? (2 points each) 1. An argument must have at least two premises. 2. If an argument contains no false statements, then it must be de
Phil 201
Fall 2007
Exam #2 ANSWERS
Silverstein
104 Total Points I. (2 points each) 1) F 2) T 3) T 4) T 5) F 6) T 7) F 8) F 9) T
II. (5 points each) 10) C`B 11) `(DA), (D"A)`(DA), `DA 12) `B`E 13) `(AD)E 3 pts for "not both"; 2 pts for correct ov
Philosophy 201: Introduction to Formal Logic
Washington State University
Spring 2014: Syllabus
Instructor
Class meetings
Office
Office hours
Office phone
Email
Nathaniel Nicol
M W F 9:10-10 in Goertzen 21
Johnson Tower 826
M W 3-4, T Th 12-1, and by appoi
1. Begging the questiona. assuming an inferior or less than self-evident principle when constructing our argument b. unsound but valid i.e. they do not involve any formal fallacy i. circular reasoning 1. whenever the conclusion you are trying to esta
Angela Smoulder
3/19/13
Phil-201
Extra Credit
In order for the given argument to be valid there needs to be an X in any of the spaces between
S and P. Graphing the premises puts and X in area #3 which is between S and P, so the form shows the
conclusion a
Kinds of Non-Arguments
- Simple Noninferential Passages
o Warnings
o pieces of advice
o statements of belief or opinion
o loosely associated statements
o reports
- Expository Passages
- Illustrations
- Explanations: explanandum and explanans (p19)
"Every
Topic:
Main Idea
CH7 (Propositional Logic)
Notes
Propositional logic:
Provides precise definitions for sentences containing
and, or, not, if, and only if.
Captures much more of ordinary language than is
possible with categorical logic.
Its basic elemen
Topic:
Main Idea
CH 5 (Categorical Propositions)
Notes
Categorical Proposition: A categorical proposition relates two
classes of objects
Class: A group of objects
EX:
Four Standard Forms:
A- All S are P
I- Some S are P
E- No S are P
O- Some S are not P
Un
Topic:
Main Idea
Chapter 6: Categorical Syllogisms
Notes
Categorical Syllogisms
A deductive argument constructed entirely of categorical
propositions with exactly two premises and a conclusion.
All comedians are shy people.
Some comedians are good actors
-last section of 7
-practice exam comes out Friday (22)
-Monday review day
Next Friday no class
Exam on Wednesday
(z*x) * (y/B) P*Q
Truth value
Truth function
Statement
Variable
Statement form
ALL TRUTH FUNCTIONS
Arranging the truth value -> will be on ex
PHIL 201 September 2nd
Equivocation time flys like an arrow
Fruit flys like a banana
TIERS
1) Ductive
a. Hypothetical valid/invalid
b. In fact: V + true premes SOUND
2) Inductive
a. Hypothetical strong/weak
b. In fact: S + true premes COGENT
c. More than
Phil 201 September 7, 2016
Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks occurs when an argument is rejected on an attack against the
person making the argument, not on the merits of the argument itself.
Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals occurs when an argument
Philosophy 201 Elementary Logic Fall 2007 Instructor: Harry Silverstein Exam #2 Sentential Logic I. True or False? (2 points each) 1. A disjunction is true if both disjuncts are true, but is false in all other cases. 2. [A"(GH)][(R"W)Y] is a conjunct
PHIL 201 August 22nd
Valid arguments if the premises then the conclusion must be true
3X5 note cards for test
Argument premises and conclusion
Statement truth
Premise Indicators Since, Because, For
Conclusion Indicators Thus, Hence
All borogroves are mims
PHIL 201 August 31st
Counter example all arguments are valid unless you can make the conclusion false
2 FALLACIES always false
1) DA
p (backward C) q
tilda p
equals tilda q
2) AC
q (backward C) p
p
equals q
Evaluations IER
Deductive
1) Hypothetical valid
PHIL 201 August 26th
Argument based on math: Pythagorean formula holds all right triangles
Argument from definition 2 premises, one conclusion; categorical statements throughout
Hypothetical syllogism: syllogism with a conditional in there
Disjunctive syl
Phil 201- August 24th 2nd Class
Statements are only true or false
Logic - study of reasoning
Inference - the reasoning process
The door is open - Statement
Please close the door - Not Statement
Conclusion and Premise indicators help us identify arguments
Phil 201 August 29th
Jabberwocky
1) Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)
Pvq
P=C=(ct) v q) v q
:p
q
2) Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)
p (backward C) q
q (backward C) r
p (backward C) r
3) Modus Ponens (MP)
p (backward C) q
p
q
4) Modus Tollens (MT)
p (backward C) q
ti