Language & Culture
April 17, 2014
At age seventeen, I was taken aback by one of my friends (well call her Sarah) at the
time who addressed her mother by retorting, following some satirical remark by her, Youre
such a bitch. A
TOPIC FOUR: MEANING & REFERENCE
Two kinds of meaning:
Natural meaning is the direct meaning; that is, what the sentence is saying directly is what is being
implied. What it means literally.
Non-natural is the meaning determined both by the spe
TOPIC FIVE: LANGUAGE & CULTURE
Spectrum of relationship of language and thought: influence force
[BOAZ] Saw language as limiting to expression and experience: thoughts and experiences are infinite, but we
only have a finite way to express them. There must
TOPIC TWO: SOUNDS
[SAPIR] phonemes are the most basic sound units that have no literal meaning, but are understood
psychologically as to be able to combine into morphemes, which are the smallest units of sound that convey
meaning. These can be one of two:
TOPIC ONE: SIGNS
[Saussure] Believed language was something innate, that we are born with. Its pre-wired into our brains.
Society is prior to the individual.
La langue is the fixed set of rules and patterns in speech that exist within the mind of the spea
TOPIC THREE: WORDS & SENTENCES
[LEPSCHY CHOMSKY] kernels are simple, declarative, active sentences of which there is only a finite
number. All other sentences transform from these. Transformation comes from abstract structures
underlying symbols. People
TOPIC SIX: COGNITIVE & SEMANTIC CATEGORIES
[TYLER] concerned with what and how we decide to group and categorize.
Taxonomy vs. Paradigm
Taxonomy functions as a hierarchy: starts with a very general, over-encompassing word and then
moves down into more s