Chapter 21: Resources of Minerals
Introduction: Natural Resources And
Human History (1)
Over one hundred sixty thousand years ago, our
ancestors probably began to use flint, chert, and
obsidian to make tools.
Metals were first used more than 20
Chapter 18: The Oceans And Their
Introduction: The Worlds Oceans
Seawater covers 70.8 percent of Earths surface,
in three huge interconnected basins:
The Pacific Ocean.
The Atlantic Ocean.
The Indian Ocean.
The Oceans Characteristics
Chapter 20: The Earth Through Time
Introduction: Tracking Past Plate
evidence in support of plate motions comes
from measurements made with the Global
Positioning System (GPS).
However, evidence of past plate motions is not
Chapter 17: Atmosphere, Winds, and
Introduction: Wind as a Geologic Agent
Mars is an arid, windy, and dusty planet,
extensively modified by wind action.
Wind is also an important agent of erosion and
sediment transport on Earth, bur its effect
Chapter 13: Mass Wasting
Introduction: What is Mass Wasting?
wasting is the downslope movement of
regolith and masses of rock under the pull of
Mass wasting is a basic part of the rock cycle.
Weathering, mass-wasting, and other aspects
Chapter 19: Climate and Our Changing
Introduction: The Changing
The concentration of carbon dioxide in Earths
atmosphere has increased because of:
The use of fossil fuels.
The clearing of forest for farmland by more than 25
Chapter 16: Glaciers and Glaciation
Introduction: The Earths Changing
Cover of Snow and Ice (1)
At any place on the land where more snow
accumulates than is melted during the course of a
year, the snow will gradually grow thicker.
As the snow piles up,
Chapter 14: Streams and Drainage
Streams in the Landscape
stream is a body of water that:
Flows downslope along a clearly defined natural
Transports detrital particles and dissolved substances.
passageway is called
Chapter 11: Geologic Time And The
concept that most geologic processes happen
very slowly was proposed by James Hutton (17261797).
Geologists sort Earths history into a sequence of
Position in that sequence identifie
Chapter 12: The Changing Face of the
Earths Varied Landscapes (1)
Processes that raise topography.
Byproduct of plate tectonics and thermal convection.
Processes that erode topography.
Gradual exposure of subsurface
Chapter 15: Groundwater
Water In The Ground (1)
Groundwater is defined as all the water in the
ground occupying the pore spaces within bedrock and regolith. The volume of groundwater is 40 times larger than the volume of all water in fresh-water lakes or
Chapter 7: Sediments and
Archives of Earths History
Introduction: Sediments In The Rock
are transported by:
The transport and deposition of sediments are
initial phases of the rock cycle.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism and
New Rocks from Old
What is Metamorphism? (1)
Metamorphism is the change in form that
happens in Earths crustal rocks in response to
changes in temperature and pressure.
What is Metamorphism? (2)
There are six
Chapter 9: How Rock Bends, Buckles,
How Is Rock Deformed?
Tectonics forces continuously squeeze, stretch,
bend, and break rock in the lithosphere.
The source of energy is the Earths heat, which is
transformed into to mechanical energy.
Chapter 6: Weathering and Soils
Breakdown of Rock
the Earths surface, rocks are exposed to
the effects of weathering: the chemical
alteration and mechanical breakdown of rock,
when exposed to air, moisture, and organic
Chapter 10: Earthquakes and Earths
When the Earth quakes, the energy stored in
elastically strained rocks is suddenly released.
The more energy released, the stronger the
Massive bodies of rock slip along fault surfaces
Chapter 3: Atoms, Elements, Minerals,
Rocks: Earths Building Materials
Introduction : What Is A Mineral?
The four components of our planet:
- The smallest individual particle that retains the
distinctive properties of a chemical element.
Chapter 4: Igneous Rocks: Product of
Earths Internal Fire
Introduction: What Is an Igneous Rock?
Igneous rocks vary greatly.
Some contain large mineral grains.
Others contain grains so small they can barely be
seen under a high power microscope.
Chapter 2: Global Tectonics
Our Dynamic Planet
Each rocky body, whether planet or moon,
started with a hot interior.
Each has been kept warm over time by energy
released by the decay of radioactive isotopes.
Despite radioactive heating, rocky
Chapter 5: Magma And Volcanoes
Introduction: Earths Internal Thermal
is molten rock beneath Earths surface.
Because liquid magma is less dense than
surrounding solid rock, and obviously more
mobile, magma, once formed, rises toward the
Chapter 1: Meet Planet Earth
No other planet in the solar system currently has
the right chemical and physical mix needed to
No conclusive evidence of life existing elsewhere
in the universe has yet been discovered as far as