I had a little bird,
its name was Enza
I opened the window,
American Skipping Rhyme (circa 1918)
Influenza and HIV
Only diseases caused by the influenza virus
are actually the flu.
Influenza viruses that circulate every year ar
Selected Enteric Diseases
GI Tract - Protective mechanisms
exposed to heavy load of microorganisms
surfaces are coated with mucus (mechanical protection)
IgA antibody (secreted) is on most intestinal surfaces
peristaltic movement continuously moves things
microbes are transmitted from warm, moist
mucous membranes of one person to the
warm, moist mucous membranes of another
vaginal and anal intcourse, oral sex
semen and vaginal discharge are major
sources of the microbes
Respiratory System Infections
second only to HIV/AIDS as the greatest killer worldwide
due to a single infectious agent.
More than 2 B people ( of the worlds population) are
infected.1.8 M people die each year
95% of deaths are i
Staph and Strep (mostly)
waterproof keratin layer of the
replaced every 25-45 days
microbes slough off with with
sebaceous glands (sebum) low pH
antimicrobial peptides in epithelial
cells keep the microbe count low
Study Guide Questions: TB and Pertussis
1. If of the worlds population is infected with TB, why dont we see it all around
us? Give two reasons why this is the case.
2. The world has experienced a resurgence in TB in the past
Study Guide Questions: Staph MRSA Strep
1. A student at CCSF shows up at the health center with a red, swollen and warm
area of redness on the back of his leg. Name two organisms that might cause
2. What is the difference b
Study Guide Questions: Enteric and Skin Overview
1. Describe three protective mechanisms built into the gastrointestinal system.
Include in your description HOW they are protective.
2. Why are people affected by food poisoning (intoxicat
Study Guide Questions: Influenza and HIV
1. I am your patient, and Im declining a yearly influenza vaccine because I believe the
warnings about pandemics are greatly exaggerated and Im afraid Ill get the flu from the
Study Guide Questions: Sexually Transmitted Infections
1. What does PID stand for? Which two common STIs are the most likely to result in
PID in women? List two serious consequences of PID.
2. The PTA president at your childs
Lab Question Answers
1. How many layers of cells are there in an Elodea leaf? 2 or 3
2. How should a coverslip be applied to a drop of liquid on a microscope slide? 45angle
3. When chloroplasts appear to be moving within a living cell, what is the c
1. The smallest unit of evolution is a POPULATION because natural selection acts on individuals,
but population evolve.
2. GENES are the material of evolution because they are present within the gene pool of a
3. Gene Mutation/ Sexual
Microbial Metabolism II
Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport System,
Which of the following is not produced during
NADH is the:
A.oxidized form of the molecule
B.reduced form of the m
Structure, Replication, Mutation
Discovery of DNA
Rosalind Franklin was not awarded the Nobel
Prize for the discovery of DNA structure
A.she was a woman
B.her contribution wasnt significant enough
C.she was dead
Microbial Metabolism I
Metabolism, Enzymes, Energy, Glycolysis
If I want to get energy OUT of a molecule, the
process is called:
Study Guide Questions: DNA Structure, Replication, Mutation
1. Using the image above, label the SUGARS, PHOSPHATES and BASES. Fill in the
CORRECT bases (when one is already labeled) or show correct base pairing (if its not la
and antibiotic resistance.
100 years ago, 1 out of every 3 children died of
an infectious disease before the age of 5.
1928 - Fleming discovered Penicillin
1940 - Florey and Chain performed the
Transcription and Translation
Genotype and Phenotype
genotype: DNA sequence
North vs. South Korea
Mix and Match Genotype to Phenotype.
resistance to penicillin
beta lactamase gene
When are genes turned on?
building proteins COSTS energy
cells dont make proteins that they dont need.
constitutive expression: gene is always on 60-80%
regulated expression: gene is turned on or off
depending on cellular need.
Study Guide Questions: Transcription/Translation
1. E. coli O157:H7 is a strain of E.coli that expresses a shiga-like toxin to go from being a
benign bacteria to one that is quite virulent. Describe the differences between th
Study Guide Questions: Antibiotic Resistance
1. What is the natural purpose for the production of antibiotics in microorganisms?
For self defense.
2. In reference to a drug (such as an antibiotic), what is the meaning of the
Study Guide Questions: Bacterial Operons
1. What is the difference between constitutive expression and regulated expression of a
gene? Give an example of each type of gene.
2. What are two different types of pre-transcription
VERTEBRAL COLUMN + BONE MARKIN
Cervical (C1 - C7)
C1 is also called Atlas
No spinous process but has a posterior tubercle.
C2 is also called Axis
Only one that has a tooth called Dens
All 7 cervical vertebrae hav
CHAPTER 1: THE HUMAN BODY
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
L = low magnification/low resolution
Can produce sharp, detailed images of tissues and cells, but not of the
small structures within cells (organelles)
Light Microscope (LM)
CHAPTER 2: CELLS (THE LIVING UNITS
All normal healthy cells in the body have specific functions; They know what to
A cell that doesn't do anything and all it does is divide = Cancer cell
Structure/morphology corresponds to their function
Chapter 4: Tissues
Cover and line and epithelial form glands of different types
Made up of lots of cells with little material between the cells (intercellular
Intercellular = between cells
Intracellular = inside the cell
10 Points - Properties/Organization of Life; Scientific Method; Atoms/Bonds/Molecules; Water
Properties and Organization of Life:
1. What is the broadest classification that scientists agree upon to classify different types of organisms,
MB12 - Disease of the Day
Type of organism (bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungi?)
If bacteria, gm+/gm- or other?
If virus, DNA, RNA, enveloped?
Mode of transmission
Type of pathogen (primary? Secondar
What do bacteria need to grow?
Physical requirements (temperature, pH,
Chemical requirements (CHNOPS, trace