FOCUS on Myocardial infarction
1. Why don't coronary artery obstructions such as heart attacks cause
damage if they are relieved within 20 minutes?
2. What is "silent ischemia?"
A. Damage to heart tissue that occurs during sleep and
Focus Sheet on Asthma
Each of the following is worth 1 point unless otherwise noted.
1. What causes the chronic airway inflammation with asthma?
A. Injury to the bronchi from abnormal air particles
B. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness
C. Infection in
Exam 5 Study Guide
Know the pathophysiology of: iron deficiency, macrocytic, aplastic
anemia normochromic/normocytic, polycythemia vera, leukemia,
multiple myeloma, hemophilia, DVT, and PE. Also know the patho of:
CAD, HTN and its complications, orthostat
Unit 1, Exercise #5
What's the electrolyte imbalance?
1. This is a common imbalance among those who are exercising or active in
hot weather and replace the fluids lost through sweat with only water. Signs
and symptoms include headache, muscle cramps
a) Complete- goes completely through the bone (width-wise)
b) Incomplete doesnt go through bone
1. Greenstick fx only bone surface is disrupted
2. Tarus fx outer bone surface buckles
3. Bowing fx bone bows out
Arteries or Veins?
For each of the following disorders, indicate if the disorder
primarily affects the arteries or veins, writing an A next to it if it
affects arteries, V if it mainly affects veins.
1. Arteriosclerosis of the blood ve
Focus on anemia
1. Part of a complete blood count is a mean corpuscular volume (MCV), an
indication of the average size of RBCs. Why is it important to know this
A. Enlarged RBCs can make blood more likely to clot so the patient may
Unit 5 Exercise #17
What type of Anemia is it?
For each of the following scenarios, choose from the types of anemia below
the one that is most likely.
Iron deficiency anemia
Anemia due to decreased R
FOCUS on Renal Failure
1. Worth 2 points: Renal Insufficiency and Chronic Renal Failure are
categorized by degree of decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. Renal
insufficiency is defined as a glomerular filtration rate that is _.
Those with les
Acid-Base Balance Disturbances
Week 1 Graded Activity (5 points)
A 56-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is
assessed in the emergency department for increasing dyspnea. His
arterial blood gases reveal the following: (1 point)
The Immune System, Vaccines and Immune Disorders
A Self-Study Guide
The Body's Defense against foreign invaders
One part of the body's defense against foreign invaders. Foreign invaders anything besides normal tissues - pathogens to cancer cells to a for
Focus on Blood Clots
1. Which of the following blood tests helps confirm a pulmonary embolism
A. A CBC
B. A D-dimer
C. A creatinine level
D. A hemoglobin A1C
2. What is the usual composition of an arterial clot?
A. Mostly platelets, some RBC
Focus Sheet on Liver failure
Each question is worth 1 point each unless otherwise stated.
1. Why do patients with liver failure have increased bruising?
A. It's caused by anemia from decreased erythropoetin production
B. Some of the clotting factor
Polyuria: increased urination, can be d/t many things including diabetes mellitus
types 1 &2, diabetes insipitus (dont make enough ADH), and some renal diseases
Oliguria=decreased UOP, <400 mL/day
Anuria=Greatly decreased UOP, <100
Unit 6 Exercise #12
What caused it?
For each renal disorder listed on the left match it with the most likely cause from those listed on
the right. Most have only one answer.
1. Pyelonephritis _
A. Hypercalcemia from bone
metastasis or hyperparathyr
Focus Sheet on Urinary Tract Obstruction
Each of the following questions is worth 1 point unless otherwise indicated.
1. Urinary tract obstruction is classified as an anatomical (structural) or
functional (usually caused by a neuromuscular disorder
Pathophysiology Unit V Exercise #7
Take my breath away. What respiratory disorder am I?
1. I follow the smoke, that is, I affect primarily smokers. I cause their large airway mucosa to
thicken so it's harder for these people to get air in and even h
Unit 6 Exercise #10
Match the liver disease listed below with the description that is most accurate
from the text beneath the list.
Acute alcoholic hepatitis
Unit 4 Exercise #2
Acute Endocrine Events
Match the signs and symptoms on the left with the acute endocrine event on the
right with which they are associated.
1. History of recent infection or stress causing increased
cortisol and catecholami
Unit 5 Exercise #11 on pneumonia
Pneumonia is most common in those with impaired immune defenses
including _. Many different organisms cause
pneumonia and age, medical history as well as recent hospitalizations
makes certain organisms more likely to
Lymphocytes: The primary WBCs involved in the immune response, most reside
in lymph fluid. Regulatory cells such as helper Ts help coordinate the immune
response. Effector cells such as killer Ts destroy foreign cells. About 70% of
Comprehensive Review Exercise #3
What's causing the Neurological/Musculoskeletal/Dermatological
Worth 10 points total, 1 per question, only 1 answer per pain scenario and each
cause is used only once.
1. Typically the headache it produces is
Focus on Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis and COPD
1. What effect does the loss of elasticity of terminal airways have on
ventilation in those with emphysema?
A. It allows the individual to breathe in too much air and thus causes air
B. It mak
Comprehensive Exercise #9
What cancer is it?
For each of the following descriptions of s cancer site, write the most likely
cancer from the list below.
Unit 5 Exercise #12
What's causing the hypoxia?
For each of the scenarios below, fill in the most likely cause of the hypoxia.
Choose from the list below.
Insufficient Red blood cells
Decreased alveolar surface area for gas
Pathophysiology Unit 4 Exercise #9
What does it tell us about thyroid function?
1. An I123 uptake test _
A. Measures the level of free (unbound) active thyroid hormone
2. A TSH level _
B. Shows whether a thyroid nodule is solid or cystic (fluid-fill
Comprehensive Exercise #6
Is it Inherited?
For each of the following, write "I" if it is known to be an inherited disorder,
"N" if not. If there is merely speculation or current research that suggests
something may be inherited that is not consider
Focus Sheet on Fractures
1. What causes the possible numbness and decreased muscle tone in an
area with a fracture?
2. Fill in the blanks for the following statement; this is worth 2 points. A
_ fracture runs parallel to the length of the bone, but
Exercise on Hematology, Cardiac and Pulmonary Disease Terms
Match the following:
1. Microcytic hypochromic anemia _
2. Aplastic Anemia_
A. Bone marrow stem cell
disorder producing a decrease
in all cell lines
B. Produced by RBC hemolysis
3. Anemia of chro