5. States of Consciousness
1. Consciousness is defined as our subjective awareness of ourselves and
2. The patterns of sleep have been tracked in thousands of research
participants who have spent nights sleeping in research labs
6. Growing and Developing
1. Development refers to the physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social
changes that occur throughout human life, which are guided by both
genetic predispositions (nature) and by environmental influences (nurture).
3. Brains, Bodies, and Behavior
1. Our behavior is also influenced in large part by the endocrine system,
the chemical regulator of the body that consists of glands that secrete
2. A neuron is a cell in the nervous system whose function it is to
8. Remembering and Judging
1. The two subjects of this chapter are memory, defined as the ability to store
and retrieve information over time, and cognition, defined as the processes
of acquiring and using knowledge.
2. psychologists conceptualize memory
1. The topic of this chapter is learningthe relatively permanent change in
knowledge or behavior that is the result of experience.
2. For behaviorists, the fundamental aspect of learning is the process of
conditioningthe ability to connect sti
4. Sensing and Perceiving
1. . The human ear can detect sounds as low as 20 hertz (vibrations per
second) and as high as 20,000 hertz, and it can hear the tick of a clock
about 20 feet away in a quiet room.
2. Psychophysics is the branch of psychology tha
2. Psychological Science
1. Basic research is research that answers fundamental questions about
2. Applied research is research that investigates issues that have implications
for everyday life and provides solutions to everyday problems.
Intelligence and Language
1. Psychologists conceptualize and measure human intelligencethe ability
to think, to learn from experience, to solve problems, and to adapt to new
2. Intelligence is also negatively correlated with criminal behaviors
Chapter 11 Defining Psychology
1. Psychology looks to study a variety of different things, from personality to brain function to cultural
2. There are many different branches of psychology, such as social, cognitive, biological and