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BIO Documents

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    1. Define pH. Explain why the pH of the blood must be maintained between 7.35 and 7.45. Explain, in terms of hydrogen ion concentration, the difference between a pH of 2 and a pH of 5. What is a “buffer”? List two buffers used by the cells of the body. What is the primary base of the body.


    PH is defined as the measure of free floating Hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood and the PH must be maintained between 7.35 and 7.45 because in that PH enzyme work optimally, otherwise proteins lose their shape and are unable to perform their job, and most importantly DNA will be damaged so the instructions for creating amino acids will be jacked up, If PH changes drastically we die. A pH of 3 is more acidic than a pH of 6, the difference is that the pH of 3 is 1,000 times more acidic than a pH of 6. The primary base of the body is bicarbonate HCO3-. If a person kept having diarrhea their PH would decrease because HCO3- bicarbonate which is the primary base of the body cannot be reabsorbed through the large intestine back into the blood and we would then have an excess of free floating H+ ions in the blood, less HCO3- and a pH less than 7.35.The PH of a person that throws up decreases because when we throw up we vomit stomach acid thus decreasing the H+ Hydrogen ion concentration in the blood and increasing the levels of bicarbonate HCO3- increasing pH levels above 7.45. A chemical buffer binds and neutralizes H+ Hydrogen ions, preventing a marked change in pH; if pH is high the buffer will decrease it and if its low it will increase it, it will try to reach homeostasis. Two examples would be HCO3- bicarbonate which binds and neutralizes H+ Hydrogen to form H2CO3, and albumin which is a big protein only found in the blood and acts like a bus transporting Ca+2 Calcium. The H+ ions and Calcium compete to bind to the chemical buffer found in albumin and H+ usually wins unless we have a reduced number of free floating H+ ions. A physiological buffer are 2 systems of the body the respiratory and kidneys. The respiratory system is responsible for the removal of carbon dioxide, which is an acid. CO2 mixes with H2O and forms Carbonic acid H2CO3; with increased respirations, less CO2 remains in the blood which leads to less carbonic acid and fewer H+ ions the opposite is true for increased respirations. Increased or decreased respirations is a respiratory adjustment to counter pH imbalance in the body. Kidneys are responsible for controlling H+ levels and reabsorbing bicarbonate HCO3- from the urine turning H+ and HCO3- bicarbonate into Carbonic acid H2CO3 thus reducing the amount of free floating H+ ions.

    • advanced A/P midterm
    • 6 terms
    • Vocabulary for advanced A/P midterm. Find, create, and access Anatomy, flashcards with Course Hero.

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