Acids and Bases
Lemon tree very pretty and the lemon ower is sweet, but the fruit
of the poor lemon is impossible to eat.
Acids and bases form a particularly important class of electrolytes. No chemical
equilibria are as widesprea
The Gas Laws
For the best and safest method of philosophizing seems to be, rst
diligently to investigate the properties of things and establish them
by experiment, and then to seek hypotheses to explain them. For
hypotheses ought to be tted mere
If a solution of iodine in benzene is cooled, the red color deepens,
while if it is warmed, the color approaches the violet of iodine
vapor, indicating that the solvation decreases with rising
temperature, as would be ex
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Some like it hot.
Thermodynamics is the science of heat and temperature and, in particular, of the
laws governing the conversion of thermal energy into mechanical, electrical, or
other forms of energy. It is a cen
Gibbs and Helmholtz Energies and
Mathematics is a language.
Josiah Willard Gibbs*
Having studied the entropy function and the second and third laws of thermodynamics in the previous chapter, we now have essentially all the too
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall
All the King's horses and all the King's men
Couldn't put Humpty together again.
As we saw in Chapter 4, the rst law of thermodynamics species that energ
And it's hard, and it's hard, ain't it hard, good Lord.
1.1 Nature of Physical Chemistry
Physical chemistry can be described as a set of characteristically quantitative approaches to the study of chemical problems. A
Found: A Gene That Prevents Elephants From Getting Cancer
And it could help us treat cancer better in humans
By Alexandra Ossola Posted 10/8/15 at 4:54pm
Latest News- Science Magazine
Biophoto Associates/Science Source
Packaging sugar-blocking drugs in nanoparticles may help prevent melanoma and other cancer cells
Nanoparticle drug stops cancers spread in mice
Robert F. Service
22 January 2
Team IDs Genetic Variant Associated With Breast Cancer Chemo
June 09, 2009
By a GenomeWeb staff reporter
NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) A genetic variation in a gene coding for an enzyme called manganese
superoxide dismutase can influence breast can
HPV gaining ground as cause of men's oral cancer
By Mike Stobbe
February 2, 2008
The sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical cancer in women is poised to become
one of the leading causes of oral c
When a system is in chemical equilibrium, a change in one of the
parameters of the equilibrium produces a shift in such a direction
that, were no other factors involved in this shift, it would lead to a
change of opposite si
Prometheus, they say, brought re to the service of mankind;
electricity we owe to Faraday.
Sir William Bragg
Electrochemical reactions reverse the action of electrolysis. Whereas electrolysis
converts electrical energy to chemi
Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure
Today I have made a discovery as important as that of Newton.
Max Planck speaking to his son in 1900.*
Thus far, we have focused mainly on the bulk properties of matter. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetic
The Chemical Bond
I believe the chemical bond is not so simple
as some people seem to think.
Robert S. Mulliken
Using what we learned in Chapter 14 about quantum mechanics and the electronic structure of atoms, we now begin our study of molecul
The Liquid State
No single thing abides; but all things ow,
Fragment to fragment clingsthe things thus grow
Until we know and name them. By degrees they melt, and are no
more the things we know.
Titus Lucretius Carus*
The structure of liquids l
If you want to understand function, study structure.
Francis H. C. Crick
A macromolecule is a chemical species distinguished by a high molar mass (10 4
to 10 10 g mol1 ). The chemistry of macromolecules, which are called polymers
Safety in numbers.
Quantum mechanics has shown us how the energy levels of atoms and molecules
can be calculated (in principle, at least) and measured spectroscopically. Thermodynamics, on the other hand, concerns mac
The Solid State
Since every solid substance contains parts that are crystalline, and
since in many of them the whole is an aggregation of crystals, it
will be readily understood that a knowledge of crystal structure
often affords an explanation
And God said, `Let there be light . . .'
Genesis 1 : 3
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation
and matter; it is a phenomenon of quantum mechanics. Detailed information
about structure and bon
United we stand.
In Chapter 15, we discussed the covalent bond and related the force holding
atoms together to the overlapping of atomic orbitals. Interactions between
molecules are best explained by several types of inter
And when the rain has wet the kite and twine, so that it can
conduct the electric re freely, you will nd it stream out
plentifully from the key on the approach of your knuckle.
All biological and many che
Infrared light offers promise of laser-sharp cancer
Technique zaps tumors with reduced risk of side effects
By Janet Raloff
Web edition : Monday, August 27th, 2012 (Science News)
Claiming scalpel-like precision, Canadian scientists have delivered
Better than cure
Jun 19th 2008
From The Economist print edition
Healthy living switches off genes that promote cancer
THAT a healthy way of life can prevent cancer is well known. It is also becoming clear that clean
living can help those who already have
Growth Factors, Receptors and Cancer
Signal transduction, how does a cell know what to do?
(Fig. 5.1, ErbB network)
Maintaining tissue architecture (Fig. 5.2) how many cells of each type? where do they
belong? replacing dead cells with proper type? need m
1970: Many scientists thought all cancer could be explained by viral infection.
Problems with the theory:
Most cancers not transmissible to others as infectious disease
Should see clusters of cancer, didnt
Couldnt isolate viruses from m
Some viruses are associated with cancer, and seem to be able to cause cancer directly.
We will look at some of these viruses and their effects on cells.
First tumor virus discovered (1911) was Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) (Fig. 3.2). Followed
Defining/Distinguishing Cancerous Tissue
Every neoplastic growth is not cancer, and cancerous cells develop over time, so how can
we identify cancerous growth?
Histopathologydistinguishing normal and neoplastic tissue.
Fig. 2.1a small intestine showing pr