PERCEPTION
I. The terms: distal stimulus, proximal stimulus, percept/representation.
II. Classification of illusions as an example of topdown processing:
Knowledge for vision = Top down processing!
(1) Nonsense lack of perception
(a) Total blindeness
(
Exam 1 Study Guide
HISTORY:
1) Cognitive Psychology: is interested what is inside the black box = mental processes
a. Perception, attention, memory, language use, problem solving, creativity and
thinking, decision making.
2) Two approaches led to developm
Toxic chemicals may be triggering the recent increases in neurodevelopmental disabilities among
children  such as autism, attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder, and dyslexia  according to a
new study from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and Ic
One of the great divides in malefemale relationships is the chick flick movies like Terms
of Endearment and The Notebook that often leave women in tears and men bored. But now, a
fascinating new study shows that sappy relationship movies made in Hollywoo
The police arrived at the house just after breakfast, dressed in full riot gear, and set up a
perimeter at the front and back. Not long after, animal rights marchers began filling the street:
scores of people, young and old, yelling accusations of murder
WHAT is the chance that you could get someone to lie for you? What about vandalizing public
property at your suggestion?
Most of us assume that others would go along with such schemes only if, on some level, they felt
comfortable doing so. If not, theyd s
If she loves you and then she loves you not, don't blame the petals of that daisy. Blame evolution.
UCLA researchers analyzed dozens of published and unpublished studies on how women's
preferences for mates change throughout the menstrual cycle. Their fin
Suffering an injury to the head or neck increases ischemic stroke risk threefold among trauma
patients younger than 50, according to research presented at the American Stroke Association's
International Stroke Conference 2014.
"These findings are importa
Notes
Learning overview
Most lowly animals like sea snails, behave by instinct and are incapable of learning.
With training, pigeons can be taught to tell the difference between Bach and Stravinsky
What is learning?
Relatively permanent change in behavior
Notes for Exam 4
Emotion
Physiology of Emotions: Lie Detection
 Inmate Study (Kassin et al., 2005)
Method:
o recorded inmates confessing to or lying about a crime
o Students and police investigators tried to detect the lies
How good are we at detecting
Notes up to Exam numero Dos
Ch 9
Development consists of changes in behavior and abilities
Human development is very complex
Consists of changes in

Physical appearance

Emotional feelings

Social communications

Mental (cognitive)
Prenatal Developme
Psych Notes up to Exam 3
Information Processing (Memory)
 Tipofthetongue phenomenon
o Retrieval error when parts of the response are produced
When you can think of something but cannot say it
 Memory is organized by
o Sound
o Letter
o Meaning
 Gen
Correlation
Correlation
Chapter 11
Correlation
Correlation
Correlation research describes the
Correlation
relationship between 2 variables
variables
Bivariate
correlation
Specifically, a linear relationship
Usually quantitative (ordinal, interval, or
Chapter 13
Chi  Squared Statistic
ChiSquare Tests
Hypothesis testing procedures for nominal
variables (whose values are categories)
Focus on the number of people in
different categories
ChiSquare Tests
ChiSquare
Remember: Nominal or Categorical
Variab
Chapter04
Hypothesis Testing
What is a hypothesis?
A prediction intended to be tested in a research study
Hypotheses can be derived based on:
Observation, related results of previous studies, theory (set
of principles that attempt to explain an important
Dependent ttest (Example 2)
Dependent Means t  test
Five people are tested on a memory test
before and after they took the memory
pills. Scores are recorded for the
numbers of correct answers they made
on the test. Investigate if there is a
change in t
Part I: Single Sample tTests
Chapter 7 Part a
t Test for a Single Sample
Compare a sample mean to a population
with a known mean but an unknown
variance
Similar to ztest
the variance of the population must be
estimated
Example:
Suppose a candidate r
One Sample t (Example 2)
Example 2
Your college newspaper reports an
informal survey showing that students at
your college study an average of 17 hours
per week.
You think that students in your dorm study
more.
You pick 16 students and ask them how
muc
Independent t test
Example 2
Independent t: Example 2
In a study on expressive writing, 20
students were recruited to take part. The
10 students who were assigned to the
expressive writing group wrote about their
feelings of their most traumatic life eve
Central Tendency and Variability
Central
Chapter 2
Outline
What is central tendency?
Classic measures
Mean, Median, Mode
Whats an average? When do we use what?
Measures of Central Tendency
While distributions provide an overall picture
of some data set,
Displaying the Order in a Group
of Numbers Using Tables and
Graphs
Graphs
Chapter 1
Defining Statistics
Branch of mathematics that focuses on
the organization, analysis, and
interpretation of a group of numbers.
Two branches of statistical methods:
Des
Testing Means
Chapter 5
SamplingDistribution
Topics we discussed limited to
distributions of individual scores
The sample consists of a single
score from the population (N = 1)
zscore for a person indicates
distance from the average
Research uses muc
Example 3
ONESAMPLE ZTEST
A governmentsponsored telephone counseling
service for adolescents tested whether the
length of calls would be affected by a special
telephone system that had a better sound
quality.
Over the past several years, the length of