Lecture 1 Tony Stretton
Neurobiology is :
1. the study of nerve cells (neurons) and the way in which they are
organized to form nervous systems which mediate animal behavior, and
2. the study of t
Zoology 523- Lecture 30- Trophic Factors
Reading: Theres a PDF which I have posted on [email protected] that is a bit better than the text, so
Effects of postsynaptic targets cell on presynaptic neurons.
Strength of synapse (LTP, etc.)
Size and survival
ZOOLOGY 523- Lecture 27 - Circuitry 2
Reading: Text, pp. pp. 420-431. Also, some of the material on receptive fields and anatomy is
repeated (without circuitry) on pp. 24-30.
Circuitry in Retina
As Tony outlined before, phototransduction occurs
ZOOLOGY 523- LECTURE 33- SYNAPTOGENESIS
Reading: Text 599-605. Optional reading at [email protected] has a couple short extracts from another
Formation and maintenance of synapse requires coordination between pre- and post-synaptic cell,
Zoology 523. Lecture 35
Axes in the Nervous System
No new reading
We have explained how you get dorsal ectoderm becoming nervous tissue. But how do
we tell different parts to take different fates? Two axes to consider, anterior-posterior
ZOOLOGY 523- LECTURE 36
FORMATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Readings: Neural development pdf on [email protected]
Optional: Nicholls, pg. 531-540
Developmental biology- how to make the right cells in the right place at the right time
Descriptive level of analysis- Wha
Zoology 523 Lecture 37- Generation and Regeneration in the Nervous System
No new reading
Generation of neurons in adults
Male songbirds, song nuclei grow and shrink with seasons, in part from addition of new cells.
Mark dividing cells with 3H-thymidine or
ZOOLOGY 523- LECTURES 32 AND 33- AXON GUIDANCE AND TARGET
Readings: Text 550-555, 558-559 plus extra reading on [email protected]
During development, get guidance of axons to appropriate targets. Easiest to study by examining
growing axons in cell cultur
Zoology 523 Lectures - Radial patterning in the Nervous System
Reading: Text, 541-550. extra PDF on [email protected]
Thicker parts of neural tube, esp. brain, has GERMINAL ZONE = VENTRICULAR ZONE,
near cavity (ventricle) in center or neural tube, plus adjacent SU
Zoology 523- Lecture 29- Activity and Visual Development
Reading: Nicholls, pg. 565-577.
Also, make sure to look the powerpoint, which will have some figures from another text.
We have talked a bit about how neuronal activity can change the efficacy of a
Problem Set 10
Due Friday Dec. 7th
1) Briefly describe how EphrinA and EphA set up the retinotopic map of axonal
projections from the retina to the optic tectum.
There is a gradient of Ephrin A expression across the anterior-posterior axis
Problem Set 9
Due Friday Nov. 30th
1) Give an experiment (a real one, please) that shows that the formation eye-specific
stripes of innervation observed in the tectum of three eyed frogs depends on the timing
(not jut the amount) of neurona
ZOOLOGY 523- Lecture 28- Circuitry #3
VISUAL PATHWAY: CENTRAL CONNECTIONS
Reading: text, pg 29-59.
Ganglion cells project from retina to various portions of brain. But not all to same side of
brain, at least in vertebrates with binocular vision.
ZOOLOGY 523- LECTURE 25- MORE MEMORIES
Reading: text, pg. 323-333.
Completely optional: I stuck the following up on our [email protected] site, for anyone interested.
Malenka, R.C. and Bear, M.F. (2004). LTP and LTD: An embarrassment of riches. Neuron 44, 5-21. A
The general background reading for the first 3 lectures is Ch 1.
For todays lecture, also read pp 159-168,176-179, 310-313.
We go over the material in the table that was sent out with the Lect 1 notes and ppt.
The reading for lecture 3 is pp 10 through 20.
The examples they use are different from mine. Same principles, though! You may also need to review the material
on basic electricity in Appendix A.
Reading: The reading is from Chapter 10 of The Molecular Biology of the Cell by
Alberts et al. There is a copy on reserve at the Steenbock Library (too expensive and the
readings I suggest from it are too little to expect you to bu
Readings : Appendix A for capacitance
Nernst Potential: Text pp 72 - 75
1. CAPACITANCE OF MEMBRANES
A membrane is a capacitor. What is a capacitor? 2 conductors separated
by an insulator. The membrane is the insulator a
The readings for this lecture are from Alberts et al Molecular Biology of the Cell 3rd Ed pp 476 492
(from the packet at Bobs).
Pg. 81 = hydrophibic = have certain side chains
o Hydrophilic have hydroxyl group
1The reading for this lecture is Chapter 6 in text.
THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
An equivalent circuit for the electrical properties of a natural membrane contains a resistance and a capacitance in
parallel. The phospholipid
The reading for this lecture is Chapter 4 from the text
To give a phospholipid membrane its resistive properties, ion channels have to be present. Channels are responsible for
the generating the resting pot
Reading for lectures 9 and 10 Chapter 7
Single channel currents to macroscopic currents
The simplest model: An individual channel can be in one of two states,
open or closed. The transition from the closed to the open sta
Reading : Chapter 7, as previously announced, plus pp 86 - 92
From voltage clamp experiments, Hodgkin & Huxley determined the currents that flowed when a
neuron was stimulated above threshold. The curre
Reading: pp 186-192, 139-140, and 207 - 210
I. Synaptic vesicles and the vesicle hypothesis
II. Design principles of chemical synapses
III. Electrical synapses
How do we know that neurotransmitters are packaged in vesic
ZOOLOGY 523- Lecture 26 - Circuitry 1
Reflexes and central pattern generators
Reading: Text, Reading- pg. 501-511
How do we use all these neuronal properties to make circuits that function in behavior? Are
there additional properties we need to worry abou
Zoology 523- Problem Set #8, due Monday. Nov. 19th
1. What postsynaptic events lead from a strong (tetanic) stimulus in the presynaptic
neuron to the fast (milliseconds to seconds) physiological changes of LTP?
The presynaptic cell releases L-glutamate, w