8.7.1 Some people who have not been tested can give blood = Some people who can give blood
are not people who have been tested. Equivalent to: b
8.7.2 People who have not been tested cannot give blood = All people who can give blood are
people who have be
Chapter 8
Deductive Arguments I Categorical
Logic
Venn Diagrams
Well use S for an arbitrary subject term, and P for an arbitrary
predicate term.
(A)
All S are P.
(F)
No S are P.
(I)
Some S are P.
E.g., Some swans are pink.
Some S are not P.
E.g., Some swa
Chapter 8
Deductive Arguments I Categorical
Logic
Venn Diagrams
Well use S for an arbitrary subject term, and P for an arbitrary
predicate term.
(A)
All S are P.
(F)
No S are P.
(I)
Some S are P.
E.g., Some swans are pink.
Some S are not P.
E.g., Some swa
Chapter 8
Deductive Arguments I Categorical
Logic
Categorical Claims
A categorical claim says something about
classes (sets, categories) of things.
2
A standard-form categorical claim has one of the four forms:
(A)
All_ are _.
E.g., All swans are white.
(
Chapter 9
Deductive Arguments II
Truth-Functional Logic
Derivations I
Truth-Functional Derivation Rules
Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns
Modus Ponens (MP)
P Q
P
P Q
Disjunctive Argument (DA)
~Q
Addition (ADD)
P
P
Q
PQ
PQ
Q R
Q
Q
P Q
~Q
The Problem of the Criterion
RODERICK M. CHISHOLM
1 The problem of the criterion seems to me to be one of the most important
and one of the most difficult of all the problems of philosophy. I am tempted to
say that one has not begun to philosophize until
Glossary
Phil 210. Farid Masrour
Ad hominem
"Argument to the person". Rejecting someone's claim by attacking the person.
Aristotles three modes of persuasion
Ethos: Persuasion by the speakers personal attributes (reputation, accomplishments, expertise,
lo