What is histidines role in the blood?
Main amino acid in the hemoglobin that can accept or donate hydrogen to buffer a
What is carboxylic acids role as a buffer?
It picks up or donates a hydrogen before it can affect the system.
What is the amino
What can ketoacidosis cause?
What can loss of acid cause?
What can vomiting cause?
What can hypokalemia cause?
What can excessive base cause?
What can IV bi
What biomolecule is formed at very high levels in the blood of PKU patients?
T/F Protein complementation combines foods containing proteins with different
limiting amino acids in order to improve the protein quality of the diet.
What are the phases of detoxification? What enzymes are used?
Hepatic enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics by first
Oxidation Reduction Hydrolysis Hydration
PhaseII:Conjugation active second
What are the neck cells job?
secrete mucus and bicarbonate
What are the parietal cells job?
secrete HCl and intrinsic factor (IF)
What are the chief cells job?
secretes enzymes (digest proteins and lipids)
What are the enteroendocrine cells job?
What are the functions of water?
-Regulates body temperature
-Transport of nutrients and waste
-Reactant or Product
What is the physiologic pH?
An increase in hydrogen ions does what to the pH?
A decrease in hydrogen ion
What are the 4 main regions of the stomach?
What is the cardias of the stomachs role?
Receives bolus from the esophagus.
What is the fundus of the stomachs role?
What is the body of the stomachs role?
The necessary coenzyme for the transamination reaction is
Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP)
Which of the following statements about protein synthesis is false?
a. limiting amino acids can halt protein synthesis
b. nonessential amino acids can be made through tran
There are a total of _ amino acids and _ are considered essential
The side chain on an amino acid may include which element?
A small chain of amino acids is called a
Each amino acid contains
an amine group and a carboxyl group
What are lipids made up of?
C, H & O
Which vitamins are fat-soluble?
Vitamins A, D, E & K
Can fat-soluble vitamins be toxic?
Yes, they can be stored.
What is required to digest and absorb fat-soluble vitamins?
Bile, therefore need to be taken with 5-10 g
The 6-carbon molecule that is formed by the addition of acytyl CoA to
Amino acid carbon skeletons can be used to synthesize _ or _
Ketones or Glucose
The main site for gluconeogenesis is
Gluconeogenesis is the
T/F The major excretory product of amino acid catabolism is ammonia
T/F Protein synthesis is decreased during periods of growth.
False- increased during periods of growth
Ammonia is detoxified to urea via the urea cycle in the liver
Skeletal muscle cells derive most of their energy from
Which carbohydrate is formed from 2 glucose molecules?
Before the payoff phase of glycolysis can begin, the cell needs to invest _ ATP
The energy currency of the cell is
What can pneumonia cause?
What can emphysema cause?
What can sleep apnea cause?
What can morbid obesity cause?
What can overfeeding of carbohydrates cause?
What cells do not contain mitochondria?
Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
What is the primary function of rough er?
Protein synthesis that is incorporated into the organelle membrane
What is rough er studded with?
What are ribosomes composed of?
What elements are contained in carbohydrates?
What macronutrient serves as the major source of fuel for the body?
How many carbs are needed per day to survive?
How are carbs found in our diet?
As sugars, starches, fiber
Which of the following is the product of trans-deaminiatio reactions
d. Carbonic acid
Which of the following terms is the total of all the breakdown processes in the
Amino acids that must be consumed in the di
What is the stimulant for CCK release in the stomach?
Fat or protein-rich chyme in the duodenum
What is the effect of CCK in the stomach?
Decreases gastric emptying
What is the stimulant for GIP release in the stomach?
Fatty acids, amino acids & some carb
What is pancreatitis?
Inflammation of the pancreas
What produces bicarbonate?
What is the function of the cell plasma membrane?
Provides protection, while still allowing sufficient exposure to environment for
nourishment and waste removal.
What is hydrogen bonding responsible for?
-Holding DNA strands together.
-Taste receptors and signal transmission.
-Holding proteins together in peptide hormones & collagen.
Strongest intermolecular force that attracts ions to both dipoles of a molecule.
What is HCl's role in digestion?
-Release nutrients from organic complexes
-Helps maintain a pH of 2
What is the enzymes of the stomachs role in digestion?
Protein and lipid digestion
What is digested in the stomach?
What is cytochrome P's role in vitamin D?
Activates Vitamin D- job is to hydroxylate.
What does cytochrome always contain?
What is the golgi complex responsible for?
Sorting newly synthesized proteins
What is the cis side of the golgi complex respons
What is digested in the mouth?
Carbs and Lipids
What is a bolus?
food and saliva
What is swallowing regulated by?
What relaxes during swallowing?
What shifts to cover the trachea during swallowing?
What is peris
What is alkalosis?
Accumulation of base or loss of acid.
What is a buffer?
Anything that can reversibly bind protons.
What is the major function of the hemoglobin buffer system?
Primary buffer against carbonic acid changes.
What is the major function of t
What is a monosaccharide?
The most basic units of carbohydrates. Made of 1 aldehyde and 1 ketone. They are the
simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids.
Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosa
What can pneumonia cause?
What can anxiety cause?
What can high altitude cause?
What can fever & sepsis cause?
What can drugs that stimulate respiration (catecholamine
What condition is required in the cell for pyruvate to be converted to acetyl CoA
How many CO2 molecules are released during one round of the Citric Acid
Which metabolic step is irreversible? What consequence does that have for
What increases efficiency of enzymatic digestion?
A) Increased Surface Area
B) Decreased Surface Area
C) Enzymatic Concentration
D) Denaturation of Enzymes
E) Enzyme Inhibition
What is NOT important for increasing surface area in digestion?
In the 2-compartment model for water in the body, water partitions into
Intracellular and extracellular
In the 3 compartment model for water in the body, the_ compartment
is further divided into interstitial and plasma compartments
IMF of ketones in a pure solution.
IMF of carboxylic acids in a pure solution.
LDF, dipole-dipole, H-bonding
IMF of esters in a pure solution.
IMF of ethers in a pure solution.
IMF of hydrocarbons i