8.7.1 Some people who have not been tested can give blood = Some people who can give blood
are not people who have been tested. Equivalent to: b
8.7.2 People who have not been tested cannot give blood = All people who can give blood are
people who have be
Chapter 8
Deductive Arguments I Categorical
Logic
Venn Diagrams
Well use S for an arbitrary subject term, and P for an arbitrary
predicate term.
(A)
All S are P.
(F)
No S are P.
(I)
Some S are P.
E.g., Some swans are pink.
Some S are not P.
E.g., Some swa
Chapter 8
Deductive Arguments I Categorical
Logic
Venn Diagrams
Well use S for an arbitrary subject term, and P for an arbitrary
predicate term.
(A)
All S are P.
(F)
No S are P.
(I)
Some S are P.
E.g., Some swans are pink.
Some S are not P.
E.g., Some swa
Chapter 8
Deductive Arguments I Categorical
Logic
Categorical Claims
A categorical claim says something about
classes (sets, categories) of things.
2
A standard-form categorical claim has one of the four forms:
(A)
All_ are _.
E.g., All swans are white.
(
Chapter 9
Deductive Arguments II
Truth-Functional Logic
Derivations I
Truth-Functional Derivation Rules
Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns
Modus Ponens (MP)
P Q
P
P Q
Disjunctive Argument (DA)
~Q
Addition (ADD)
P
P
Q
PQ
PQ
Q R
Q
Q
P Q
~Q
The Problem of the Criterion
RODERICK M. CHISHOLM
1 The problem of the criterion seems to me to be one of the most important
and one of the most difficult of all the problems of philosophy. I am tempted to
say that one has not begun to philosophize until