Chapter 1 The Foundations of Biochemistry
You are responsible for sections 1.1 1.4 but not 1.5
Understand that biological molecules are composed of a subset of all possible elements
and functional groups
Understand the basic structures
Chapter 3 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
You are responsible for sections 3.1 3.4
Understand the chemical characteristics of the R groups that
distinguish the 20 standard amino acids
Know the one-letter and three-letter codes for
Chapter 2 Water
You are responsible for sections 2.1 2.5
Understand how the polar water molecule forms hydrogen bonds
Understand the different types of noncovalent forces acting on biological molecules
Understand why water dissolves io
*Homogametic fusion (
*Ovarian cycle and uterine cycle
*Corpus luteum usually lives about 16 days.
*Different types of follicles: during period of cyclisity in a woman, 97% of the follicles are
primordial. Secondary follicles: starts to hav
*Alopecia: male-patterned baldeness; not sex linked; the genes involved are neither found on X
or Y chromosome; it is a sex-influenced trait; it is on the autosomal genes; autosomal dominant;
if a man is heterozygous or homozygous for the
Question: Induced pluripotent stem cell is and what are some problems that have arisen from it.
*Differentiation for human is pretty much complete at about 8 weeks.
*Mesonephros: progenitor kidney
*Genital ridge: where the primitive sex co
*Aristotle- wrote Generation of Animals. He was a major initiator of the field of physiology. First to examine dead animals and record aspects of
them at about 330 B. C.
*Fallopius- (1560). Oviduct (fallopian tube)
Physiology of Reproduction 2/9/10
*Tamoxifen (TAM): an estrogen receptor blocking agent (ER Antagonist).
Ch 5 Gilbert
*Timeline of development: (timeline in Gilbert chapter 1)
*4-6 days after fertilization: time of implantation in species like mouse, r
*Determining/contributing to Maleness: SRY (sex determining region of the Y chromosome,
encodes the DNA for TDF)(TDF is encoded by the gene SRY) thought that the TDF was
encoded by another gene called the ZFY gene; for phenotypic maleness
*Urethra: both sperm and urine go through
*Prostaglandins: ubiquitous, act as second messengers, involved in heart muscle and smooth
muscle contraction, ovulation, implantation, contraction of male reproductive tract; present in
*LH-R (receptor) are always present on theca cells. FSH-R always on granulosa cells. Estrogen
Receptors (ER) are present constitutively.ER are on both theca and granulosa cells.
*Estrogen goes up and is involved in the up-regulation of FSH r
*G-protein: alpha, beta, gamma subunits.
*Only about 10% receptor occupancy is required for full biological effect.
*For LH, only 1 % receptor occupancy required in order for full biological effect. Allows for a
Reprod. 4.1.10 (missed last 2 lectures)
*Initiation of puberty: hypothalamic maturation theory: the maturation of the urinal circuitry that
is involved in the release of the GnRH. One of the very initial molecule responsible for the
Exam 2 starts here.
*HRT: hormone replacement therapy in the post menopausal period. Decrease osteo.
*Short term treatment of estradiol enhances memory in their mid-age.
GnRH mechanism of reaction. Signal transduction mechanism:
*GnRH is an extracellular messenger. Intracellular might be cAMP, Calcium, etc.
*A lot of molecules that use non-cyclic AMP system. (overhead)
*PLC beta 1: specific enzyme in membrane activated by GnRH.
*IP3 can cause intracellular calcium c
Chapter 6 Enzymes
You are responsible for section 6.1 6.5
Understand how enzymes differ from nonbiological catalysts
Know the six classes of enzymes
Understand that the height of the activation energy barrier determines the rate of a r
Chapter 4 Three-Dimensional Structure of Proteins
You are responsible for sections 4.1 4.4 but NOT for the rules for protein folding patterns,
Protein Motifs Are the Basis ., instrinsically disordered proteins, Defects in Protein
Folding, the details mole
CNS related to control of food intake (inhibiting
1919 Atwell showed that
extracts from mammalian
pituitary glands reversibly
Pineal gland (or epiphysis)
Location - human
Location - rat
Superior cervical ganglion
Suprachiasmatic nuclei of the
Noradrenaline = norepinephrine
Found embedded in the
Consequence of thyroid
1. is produced by the parathyroid glan
Conserved features and
structural motifs within the
Secretin receptor family/class
Murphy, K. G. and Bloom, S. R. 2006.
Gut hormones and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Nature
PYY336, GLP-1 &
Hormones and pregnancy
Human chorionic gonadotropin
Human placental lactogen
Human placental lactogen hPL
Chorionic somatomammotropin hCS
The human growth hormone (hGH)/human
placental lactogen (hPL) gene family consists
of two GH and three PL genes