CHAPTER 2
ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND INTERATOMIC BONDING
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
2.1 (a) When two or more atoms of an element have different atomic masses, each is termed an isotope. (b) The atomic weights of the elements ordinarily are not integers because:
CHAPTER 4
IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
4.1 In order to compute the fraction of atom sites that are vacant in lead at 600 K, we must employ Equation (4.1). As stated in the problem, Q = 0.55 eV/atom. Thus, v
Q 0.55 eV / atom = ex
CHAPTER 9
PHASE DIAGRAMS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
9.1 Three variables that determine the microstructure of an alloy are 1) the alloying elements present, 2) the concentrations of these alloying elements, and 3) the heat treatment of the alloy.
9.2 In or
CHAPTER 11
APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSING OF METAL ALLOYS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
11.1 This question asks that we list four classifications of steels, and, for each, to describe properties and cite typical applications. Low-Carbon Steels Properties: nonres
CHAPTER 16
COMPOSITES
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
16.1
The major difference in strengthening mechanism between large-particle and dispersionstrengthened particle-reinforced composites is that for large-particle the particle-matrix interactions are not trea
CHAPTER 18
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
18.1 This problem calls for us to compute the electrical conductivity and resistance of a silicon specimen. (a) We use Equations (18.3) and (18.4) for the conductivity, as
= 1 Il = = VA Il d V
CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
6.1
This problem asks that we derive Equations (6.4a) and (6.4b), using mechanics of materials principles. In Figure (a) below is shown a block element of material of cross-sectional area
CHAPTER 13
APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSING OF CERAMICS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
13.1 The two desirable characteristics of glasses are optical transparency and ease of fabrication.
13.2 (a) Devitrification is the process whereby a glass material is caused to
CHAPTER 20
MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
20.1 (a) We may calculate the magnetic field strength generated by this coil using Equation (20.1) as
NI l
H =
=
(200 turns)(10 A) = 10,000 A - turns/m 0.2 m
(b) In a vacuum, the flux density is
CHAPTER 8
FAILURE
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
8.1 Several situations in which the possibility of failure is part of the design of a component or product are as follows: (1) the pull tab on the top of aluminum beverage cans; (2) aluminum utility/light poles
CHAPTER 15 CHARACTERISTICS, APPLICATIONS, AND PROCESSING OF POLYMERS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
15.1 From Figure 15.3, the elastic modulus is the slope in the elastic linear region of the 20C curve, which is
(stress) 30 MPa - 0 MPa = = 3.3 GPa (strain) 9 x
CHAPTER 22
ECONOMIC, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND SOCIETAL ISSUES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
PROBLEM SOLUTION
22.D1W The three materials that are used for beverage containers are glass, aluminum, and the polymer polyethylene terephthalate (designa
CHAPTER 3
THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 3.1 Atomic structure relates to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom, as well as the number and probability distributions of the constituent electrons. On the ot
CHAPTER 5
DIFFUSION
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
5.1 Self-diffusion is atomic migration in pure metals-i.e., when all atoms exchanging positions are of the same type. Interdiffusion is diffusion of atoms of one metal into another metal.
5.2 Self-diffusion m
CHAPTER 7
DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
7.1 The dislocation density is just the total dislocation length per unit volume of material (in this case per 3 5 -2 cubic millimeters). Thus, the total length in 1000 mm of ma
CHAPTER 10
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METALS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
10.1 The two stages involved in the formation of particles of a new phase are nucleation and growth. The nucleation process involves the formation of normally very small particles of the
CHAPTER 12
STRUCTURES AND PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
12.1
The two characteristics of component ions that determine the crystal structure are:
1) the
magnitude of the electrical charge on each ion; and 2) the relative sizes of the
CHAPTER 14
POLYMER STRUCTURES
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
14.1
Polymorphism is when two or more crystal structures are possible for a material of given composition. Isomerism is when two or more polymer molecules or mer units have the same composition, but
CHAPTER 17
CORROSION AND DEGRADATION OF MATERIALS
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
17.1 (a) Oxidation is the process by which an atom gives up an electron (or electrons) to become a cation. Reduction is the process by which an atom acquires an extra electron (or
CHAPTER 19
THERMAL PROPERTIES
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
19.1 The energy, E, required to raise the temperature of a given mass of material, m, is the product of the specific heat, the mass of material, and the temperature change, T, as
E = cpm(T)
The T is
CHAPTER 21
OPTICAL PROPERTIES
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
21.1 Similarities between photons and phonons are: 1) Both may be described as being wave-like in nature. 2) The energy for both is quantized. Differences between photons and phonons are: 1) Phonons