Synoptic Meteorology II: The Effects of Diabatic Heating and Friction Upon Isentropic
Potential Vorticity
25-27 March 2013
Readings: Bluestein Vol. II, Section 1.9.13; Lackmann Section 4.3
Mathematical Formulation
In our derivation of the isentropic poten
Synoptic Meteorology II: The Quasi-Geostrophic Omega Equation
4-6 February 2013
Readings: Holton (3rd Ed.), Section 6.4.1
Similar material may also be found in the 4th and 5th editions of Holtons textbook.
Why Are We Interested In Vertical Motion?
Before
Synoptic Meteorology II: The Q-Vector Form of the Omega Equation
11-13 February 2013
Readings: Holton (3rd Ed.), Section 6.4.2
Similar material may also be found in the 4th and 5th editions of Holtons textbook.
Motivation: Why Do We Need Another Omega Equ
Synoptic Meteorology II: Introduction to Isentropic Potential Vorticity
4-6 March 2013
Readings: Bluestein Vol. II, Sections 1.9.1-1.9.2
Introduction
We start by casting the horizontal momentum equation, neglecting friction, into isentropic
coordinates:
D
Synoptic Meteorology II: Potential Vorticity Inversion and Anomaly Structure
11-13 March 2013
Readings: Bluestein Vol. II, Sections 1.9.3 and 1.9.4
Potential Vorticity Inversion
Introduction
One of the most important facets of potential vorticity is that
Synoptic Meteorology II: Synoptic Development The Pettersen-Sutcliffe Framework
18-20 February 2013
Introduction
To this point in the semester, we have concentrated on understanding and applying four
equations: the quasi-geostrophic vorticity equation, th
Synoptic Meteorology II: Isentropic Analysis
25-27 February 2013
Readings: Carlson (Mid-Latitude Weather Systems), Section 12.1; Lackmann (Midlatitude
Synoptic Meteorology), Chapter 3
Introduction
Before we can appropriately introduce and describe the con
Synoptic Meteorology II: The Geostrophic Approximation
23 January 2013
Readings: Holton (3rd Ed.), Sections 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, and 3.4
Similar readings may also be found in the 4th and 5th editions of Holtons textbook.
Review: The Equations of Motion
In
Synoptic Meteorology II: Petterssen-Sutcliffe Development Theory Application
20 February 2013
In our lecture on Petterssen-Sutcliffe Development Theory, we outlined the principle of selfdevelopment in the context of the life cycle from birth to decay of a
Synoptic Meteorology II: Thermal Wind Application
28 January 2013
In our Geostrophic Approximation lecture, we stated that a geostrophic wind that turns
counterclockwise (or backs) with increasing height represents cold air advection. Likewise, a
geostrop
Synoptic Meteorology II: The Quasi-Geostrophic Approximation
28 January 2013
Readings: Holton (3rd Ed.), Section 6.2.1
Similar material may also be found in the 4th and 5th editions of Holtons textbook.
What is the Quasi-Geostrophic Approximation?
In our
Synoptic Meteorology II: The Quasi-Geostrophic Vorticity Equation
28 January 2013
Readings: Holton (3rd Ed.), Section 6.2.2
Similar material may also be found in the 4th and 5th editions of Holtons textbook.
Defining the Geostrophic Relative Vorticity
Ear
Trade Wind Inversion
Introduction
The trade wind inversion is one of the most prominent manifestations of temperature
inversions within the troposphere. Trade wind inversions are commonly found in association
with the subtropical anticyclones that are con
Radiative and Radiative-Convective Equilibrium
Introduction
The energy balance of the Earths system is quite intricate with numerous factors
contributing to heat energy import, transfer, and exchange. We begin our discussion of this
energy balance in this
Tropical Meridional Circulations: The Hadley Cell
Introduction
Throughout much of the previous sections, we have alluded to but not fully described the
mean meridional overturning circulation of the tropics known as the Hadley cell. Herein, we
rectify thi
El Nio Southern Oscillation
Introduction
One of the leading modes of interannual variability within the tropics is manifest by the
El Nio Southern Oscillation, or ENSO. Much research has been undertaken to better understand
what ENSO is, how El Nio and La
Monsoons
Introduction
On an annual basis, the rainfall (or, sometimes, the lack thereof) associated with
monsoons has the greatest impact on the greatest number of people. In particular, the Asian
monsoon, the most well-known and well-studied of all monso
The Zonal Walker Circulation
Introduction
In addition to the mean meridional Hadley circulation, there also exist zonal overturning
circulations that contribute to the meteorology and climatology of the tropics. Together, these
overturning circulations ar
Interseasonal and Intraseasonal Variability
Introduction
In the mid-latitudes, the atmospheric exhibits strong synoptic-scale variability such that
climatology is a poor representation of day-to-day weather. In the tropics, however, climatology
does a goo
Equatorial Waves
Introduction
Each of the various equatorial wave modes can be represented as one of the wave-like
solutions to the shallow water equation set. In order to best understand these waves, it is fruitful
to step through the derivation of the s
Course Introduction
Most generally, Tropical Meteorology is used to refer to the meteorology of the
tropics. More specifically, Tropical Meteorology can be used to refer to the study of the
physics and dynamics associated with meteorological phenomena occ
Tropical Meteorology Homework #3: Tropical Cyclone Genesis Forecasting
Due Date: Tuesday, 29 April 2014
You are in the forecasters hot seat. You are given six synoptic analyses, all valid at the same
time. These include:
Figure 1 Geostationary IR Satellit
Tropical Meteorology Homework #1: Extending the Kuo-Eliassen Model
Due Date: 27 February 2014
Introduction: In this and all future assignments, please note that clear, accurate, concise
explanations will garner full credit, with accuracy and clarity being
Tropical Meteorology (Atm Sci 470) Homework #2
Exploring the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its Multiscale Impacts
Due Date: Thursday, 13 March 2014
One of the hot button topics of research in the field of tropical meteorology is the
Madden-Julian Os
Tropical Meteorology Homework #4: Maximum Potential Intensity
Due Date: Thursday, 8 May 2014
In this assignment, you will explore sensitivities to maximum potential intensity.
You
will
find
the
FORTRAN
77
program
mpi.f
at
http:/derecho.math.uwm.edu/classe
Climatology of the Tropics
Introduction
To first order, the meteorology of the tropics can be defined by its climatology. The same
cannot be said about the middle and higher latitudes, where temporal averaging leads to the
damping of the transient eddies