Fluid Dynamics
Chapter 4
Integral Form of the Basic Laws
The properties which define a flow are:
*
*
*
*
*
Density & Viscosity - &
Temperature - T
Velocity - U: Ux=U, Uy=V, Uz=W
Pressure (Normal stress) - p (xx, yy, zz)
Shear stress - xy, xz, yz
There ar

Internal Flow
Chapter 8
Flow in Pipes
The flow in a pipe is a viscous flow, and there exist
two distinct regions: laminar and turbulent regions,
connected by a transition region.
Laminar flow
y
x
dye remains a
fine filament
Turbulent flow
y
x
dye is rap

External Flow
Chapter 9
Boundary Layers
The concept of a boundary layer is due to Prandtl. Many
viscous flows can be analyzed by dividing the flow into two
regions, one close to the solid boundaries, the other covering
the rest of the flow.
Only in the

Chapter 6
Differential Form of the Basic Equations
The continuum assumption has allowed the treatment
of fluid properties as fields, scalar or vector, which are
functions of space and time.
Scalar fields
Vector fields
Density- , , ;
Vorticity- , , ;
Pre

Chapter 7
Dimensional Analysis
The purpose is to reduce the number of parameters or
variables upon which a physical phenomenon depends.
Variables like U, , , etc. will be rearranged as to
eliminate the fundamental units.
7.1 Geometric similarity
In orde

Chapter 5
Fluid Kinematics
As the fluid flows, a fluid particle can be
translated, rotated, or deformed (dilated & strained)
5.1 Translation fluid acceleration
=
=
+
+
+
total
acceleration
convective
acceleration
local
acceleration
=
=
+
+
+

Fluid Dynamics
Chapter 4
Integral Form of the Basic Laws
The properties which define a flow are:
*
*
*
*
*
Density & Viscosity - &
Temperature - T
Velocity - U: Ux=U, Uy=V, Uz=W
Pressure (Normal stress) - p (xx, yy, zz)
Shear stress - xy, xz, yz
There ar

Chapter 3
Fluid Statics
3.1 Hydrostatic Pressure
Fluid mechanics is the study of fluid in motion.
Special case: NO motion at all.
Fluid statics - determine the stress field.
The force/stress on any given surface
immersed in a fluid at rest, is always
p

Chapter 2
Fundamental Concepts
2.1 The Continuum Assumption
Fluids are composed of many finite-size molecules with finite
distance between them. These molecules are in constant random
motion and collisions.
This motion is described by statistical mechan

Chapter 1
Introduction
Until the turn of the century, there were two main
schools studying fluids:
Hydraulics - engineers utilizing empirical formulas from
experiments for practical applications
Plenty of information with limited value
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