1. In Linux, explain what the difference between fork(), sys_fork(), and do_fork() is.
Fork() calls sys_fork(), and sys_fork() calls do_fork(), which actually performs the fork.
2. What is the difference between independent processes and
9 Mass Storage Devices
Track: The track is a certain track located at a distance from the center of the disk that the head rides
Sector: The sector is a segment of a track that holds a certain amount of data.
Arm Assembly: The arms are all attached in
Chapter 1: Introduction
Resource Allocator: Allocates resources to processes/modules/components/users based on their
Control Program: Another word for operating system, a control program is a program that can run other
10 File System Interface
1. Explain two distinct parts that a file system consists of.
Files: the actual data of a file, the whole collection of them
Directory Structure: Everything that isnt a file that describes the files attributes (name,
Basic Memory Management Hardware: An MMU deals with everything, including logical to physical
Logical and Physical Address Space: Logical address space is address space generated by the CPU, while
Physical Address Space is th
11 Distributed Systems
1. What is a distributed system (for computation)?
A distributed system is a network of computational devices that can perform independent
subtasks of a process, which can then have their results combined.
2. Explain the four reason
Chapter 3: Processes
Process (Job, task): A process is an active program within the kernel. The job reserves resources needed
by a task, and a task is the execution of the process.
Process in memory (text, stack, heap, data): The process is lo
8 Virtual Memory
Virtual Memory and Address Space: Virtual Memory is a single contiguous memory space that maps to
physical memory. Pages can be shared, so the virtual memory can actually be larger than the physical
memory. Address space is defined by the
I None of the disk-scheduling disciplines, except FCFS, is truly fair (starvation
3) Explain why this assertion is true.
b) Describe a way to modify algorithms such as SCAN to ensure fairness.
c) Explain why fairness is a
1. What is a thread? Give an example of a multi-threaded application.
A thread is a process that happens to share the same memory-space as the process that created
it. An example of a multi-threaded application is a web-server.
2. Why threads? Th
Chapter 2: OS Structures
OS Services: Services are programs/modules that provide services for specific things, such as program
execution, IO operations, file systems, error detection, resource allocation, account, protection/security,