Figure 12.1: Simple Pendulum
displacement of the bob,x, is as
We can combine equations 12.2 and 12.3 we get an expression which is valid for only small
We can identify equation 12.4 as simi
8. Measure the mass of the cup and water system again. Determine the amount of water
now present in the cup. Call this mfull .
9. Determine the mass of the ice by taking the difference between mw and mfull . This
will be the initial mass of the ice, mi
Specific Heat of Metals
In this lab you are going to measure the specific heat capacity of two different metals. The
specific heat capacity of a material is defined to be the amount of heat required to raise
the temperature of
Figure 18.2: The equipotential lines immediately surround two unlike charges
A) Electric Field Lines
B) Equipotential Lines
Conductive Sheet Holding Apparatus
Power Supply or Battery
1. Two different electric ch
An electric field is said to exist in a region of space where an electric force acts on charges
placed within that region. The field strength is proportional to the force exerted on the
charge and the direction
Figure 18.1: Field Lines Around Point Charges
field. All points, which have the same potential, fall on what are called an equipotential line.
The equipotential lines around a positive point charge are shown in figure 18.2.
Notice that the field lines and
The calorimeter we will use is a double wall aluminum container, with an internal cup
suspended inside an outer container. The air space acts as insulation to cut down on heat
losses or gains between the system and the surrounding air. The inner container
3. Measure the mass of the internal cup of the calorimeter when it is dry and empty.
4. Fill the cup with cool water, about half full. Find the mass of the water in the cup.
5. After the temperature of the metal shot in the steam generator stops rising, m
4. For each dot on the conductive paper record a value of electric potential in Microsoft
Excel. Each cell in Excel should correspond to a dot on the conductive paper. Make
sure to note which side is negative and which side is positive.
5. Use the Chart W
Figure 19.1: Simple Circuit Schematic
PASCO Electronics Spring Board
1. Your instructor will demonstrate the use of the multimeter. IMPORTANT! When
measuring an unknown voltage or current, always
If a conductor obeys Ohms law then the resistance is independent of the voltage applied
across it, and the resistance is equal to the quotient of the voltage applied across the conductor divided by the current flowing
For a combination circuit, that contains both parallel and series portions, the total resistance
can be calculated by figuring out the total effective resistance for different sections. Then
treating that section
We can use the conservation law from equation 16.1 to determine the value of Hf . We
combine equations 16.2 and 16.3. Solving for Hf we get this expression:
(mw cw + mc cc )(Ti Tf ) mi cw (Tf 0 C )
Using this final expression will allow u
The Fusion of Water
The amount of energy required to convert a unit of mass of one substance from one state to
another is called the latent heat of the material. The phase change that occurs in a material
involves the absorpti
9. Load the apparatus with a 1 kg mass. Carefully twist the plunger back and forth until
it stops moving.
10. Record the new volume. This is V2 .
11. Calculate the pressure at this new volume. First find the weight of the load by using;
W = mg, where g is
If we examine the forces acting on the bob, we find that there are two, the weight of the
bob and the tension in the string. When the bob is in its equilibrium position these forces
cancel each other. When the bob is displaced from equilibrium the tension
Notice that the mass of the pendulum bob mass cancels out in the previous expression. This
allows us to reduce equation 12.6.
So if we hold to our small angle approximation equation 12.7 will describe the period of a
Standing Waves on a String
Standing waves are produced by the interference of two wave trains with equal velocity,
amplitude, and wavelength, traveling in opposite directions in the same medium. Such a
condition occurs when a
Figure 13.1: Standing Wave Nodes and Anti-nodes
where v is the wave velocity, f is the frequency and is still the wavelength. Now if the
velocity of the waves on the string is known, the frequency required to produce a particular
standing wave can be foun
The relationship between the tension and the number of anti-nodes can be examined. However substituting from equation 13.1 in equation 13.4 and solving for f:
f = 4L2 D n
gives the relationship between the frequency and the number of anti-nodes
Figure 13.2: Equipment Setup
A Mass, B Pulley, C Wave Driver, D Lab Clamp/Stand
2. Trial II Constant Frequency
1. The Signal Generator should be set to Auto at a frequency of 60Hz with amplitude of
2. Click on the MON button on the Signal Generator. V
4. Plot frequency versus number of anti-nodes. Use the relationship in equation eq
13.6 to solve for the linear mass density,D. Record this value as D3 .
4. Compare the results of D1 with D2 and D1 with D3 by calculating the percent difference.
1. Using the adjustable air column, determine the tube length for the first three resonances
of a tuning for of known frequency. From these lengths find the wa
Speed of Sound in Air
The frequency, wavelength and velocity of all waves are interrelated by the following equation:
where v is the wave velocity, f is the frequency, and is the wavelength. Since sound is
a wave ph
Figure 15.1: Equipment Setup of Boyles Law
A Wing Nuts, B Plunger, C Plank, D Syringe Body
1. Remove the cap block from the apparatus.
2. Loosen the wing nuts on the base block and carefully remove the syringe cylinder.
3. Remove the tip se
The ideal gas law relates the pressure, volume, and temperature of an ideal gas as follows:
P V = nRT
where P is the absolute pressure of a gas, V is its volume, n is the number of moles of the
gas that is pr
The total resistance can be found by the equation:
RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . . + Rn
(20.1) A parallel circuit, such as the one in figure 20.2 has a different way to determine the
Figure 20.2: Simple Parallel Circuit
The total resistance ca
3. By varying the output of the voltage source, obtain at least six different readings for
the voltage and current for the known resistance.
4. Plot a graph of the voltage versus the current for the resistor. From the graph, obtain
the value of the resist
Due - Feb.08
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Show all work. Include diagrams whenever applicable. Place your solutions in the space below each problem. Highlight or box the final answers. It makes it much easier to mark. All assignme