Accompaniments of absolute poverty
The 400 to 1100 million people living in absolute poverty (no more than $1/day in
1988ppp) suffer the following deprivations:
o Three- to fourfifths of their income is spent on food; the diet is
monotonous, limited to c
Food deficits and insecurity in sub-saharan africa
Sub-saharan africa was the only ldc region where food output per capita fell from
1963 to 1996. Africa's daily calorie consumption per capita, 1997/99, 2,195
(compared to 2,115 in the early 1960s and 2,1
Case studies of countries
Indonesia and nigeria
Malaysia, pakistan and brazil
Policies to reduce poverty and income inequality
Capital and credit. Some credit programs - the microfund in philippines and the
association for development
Major rural groups in poverty
The widespread assumption among development economists in the 1960s and
1970s that agrarian societies are characterized by roughly uniform poverty (bruton
1965:100) is a myth.
Rural society is highly differentiated, compris
Factors contributing to low income and poverty in rural areas
Average income in rural areas is substantially less than in urban areas in ldcs.
Rural inequality is greater than urban inequality in latin america but less in the
rest of the developing world
Improving rural services
Urban areas have far more schools, medical services, piped water, and so on, than
rural areas. If rural, middle, and lower classes opposed the urban bias of the
national political leadership, they might be able to increase their
Slow and fast growers
As already indicated, countries at earlier and lower levels of development are
more likely to experience increases in income inequality.
However, higher rates of economic growth, which are only weakly correlated with
gnp per capita
Income equality versus growth
Some development economists maintain that inequality, by spurring high
investment rates, benefits the poor, since accumulation raises productivity and
average material welfare.
University of california, los angeles, economi
Population And Development
Chapters 8-13 analyze factors that influence economic growth.
The next three chapters examine the role of the human population in economic
This chapter examines how population growth affects economic development and
World population: rapid but decelerating growth
The world's population is unevenly distributed geographically. Figure 83 shows
regional distribution in 1950 and 1994, and projected distribution in 2025.
Asia, africa, and latin america grew at a rate of 2