Chapter 2: The Logic of Social Statistics
Overview
Identifying the grid lines around which the statistical maze is organized
involves asking three questions about:
the difference between descriptive statistics and inferential
statistics;
the difference
Chapter 5: Measures of Central Tendency
Overview:
Within the structure of Part II, Chapter 5 is oriented as follows:
Does your problem centre on a descriptive or an inferential issue?
Descriptive
How many variables are being analyzed simultaneously? On
Chapter 17: Multiple Regressions
Overview:
Chapter 17 continues the examination of variable context and provides
the tools for examining the effects of contextual (control) variables when
the variables are at higher (interval and ratio) levels of measure
Chapter 12: Proportional Reduction in Error Statistics
Overview:
The bivariate analysis tools covered so far include bivariate tables
for qualitative variables and scatterplot analysis for quantitative
variables.
However, both types of analysis are limite
Chapter 20: Hypothesis Testing
Overview:
With our knowledge of point and interval estimates in hand, we are now
ready to explore the second category of inferential statistics: hypothesis
testing
Within the structure of Part V, Chapter 20 is oriented as
Chapter 18: Samples and Populations
Overview:
Part V of the textbook focuses on a new region of the statistical maze:
inferential statistics.
Inferential statistics centre on the issue of generalizing the findings from
a sample (descriptive statistics)
Chapter 15: Taking Additional Variables into Account
Overview
A lot of statistical ground has been covered!
The preceding chapters have already addressed tools for conducting
descriptive, univariate analysis for variables at every level of
measurement,
Chapter 16: The Elaboration Model
Overview
Recall: A full understanding of any bivariate relationship requires a
consideration of the context of the relationship, since additional variables
may be operating (varying) and can affect the character of the o
TEST BANK
Chapter One
Claudio is studying palm tree heights in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In this study, which of
the following is a variable?
a. Location = Pernambuco.
b. Tree height.
c. The height of any specific treefor example, 3 metres.
(Answer
Chapter 13: Statistics for Categorical Relationships
Overview:
Recall: PRE measures of association quantify the relationship between an
independent variable and a dependent variable
All PRE measures deal with descriptive issues and are concerned with
bi
Chapter 19: Point Estimates, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Levels
Overview:
Recall: Inferential statistics are procedures that use induction to
generalize from the specific case (sample evidence) to the general case
(population conditions).
The i
Chapter 4: Introducing Univariate Analysis
Overview:
Part II of the textbook is oriented as follows:
Does your problem centre on a descriptive or an inferential issue?
Descriptive
How many variables are being analyzed simultaneously? One
What is the l
Chapter 1: The Location and Limits of Quantitative Analysis
Overview:
Learning social statistics is like navigating a maze.
To navigate the maze, we need to find our bearings, and we can do this in
two stages.
1. We examine a model of the social constru
Chapter 21: Various Significance Tests
Overview:
Chapter 21 introduces a few additional inferential concepts and tests.
Within the structure of Part V, Chapter 21 is oriented as follows:
Does your problem centre on a descriptive or an inferential issue?
Chapter 10: Bivariate Tables
Overview:
Recall: Bivariate analysis attempts to determine whether the expected
(predicted) relationship between variables, as stated in a hypothesis, is
actually present in the data.
Chapter 10 focuses on the use of bivaria
Chapter 8: The Normal Curve
Overview:
Within the structure of Part II, Chapter 8 is oriented as follows:
Does your problem centre on a descriptive or an inferential issue?
Descriptive
How many variables are being analyzed simultaneously? One
What is t
Chapter 11: Scatterplot Analysis
Overview:
Recall: Bivariate analysis attempts to determine whether a change in one
(independent) variable is associated with a systematic (reliable) change
in another (dependent) variable.
If an association is detected,
Chapter 7: Charts and Graphs
Overview:
Within the structure of Part II, Chapter 7 is oriented as follows:
Does your problem centre on a descriptive or an inferential issue?
Descriptive
How many variables are being analyzed simultaneously? One
What is
Chapter 6: Measures of Dispersion
Overview:
Within the structure of Part II, Chapter 6 is oriented as follows:
Does your problem centre on a descriptive or an inferential issue?
Descriptive
How many variables are being analyzed simultaneously? One
Wha
Chapter 9: Understanding Relationships
Overview:
Within the structure of Part III, Chapter 9 is oriented as follows:
Does your problem centre on a descriptive or an inferential issue?
Descriptive
How many variables are being analyzed simultaneously? Tw
Unit 11 Statistical inference:
Tests of significance
Significance testing
Significance tests have six elements:
1. null and alternative hypotheses
2. test statistic
3. p-value
4. alpha-level
5. conclusion
6. assumptions that should be met
In the crim
Unit 10 Probability
Probability
Our goal is to become familiar with the
language of probability without exploring the
mathematics of probability.
Example
Toss a coin . Do it again And again
The behaviour of the coin is unpredictable in
the short run (its
Unit 1 - Introduction
Statistics can be extremely useful in providing
evidence for (or against) statements such as
these:
1. Women tend to report more illnesses than men.
2. Working-class people are more likely than upperclass people to have high blood pr
Evaluation Research
A reason for doing research; a type of research question, not a method.
Do programs, policies, practices, interventions work? What effect do they have?
Application of research - all of the designs which we have discussed - to particula
Exam-style short essay questions
How does policies and laws affect families in many different ways?
answer:
A wide range of policies and laws affect families in many different ways. They can be
grouped into two broad types
those that are specifically abou
Quantitative Methods
Started with topic, did lit review.
If not a lot known about the topic, or need further exploration, then do qualitative
exploratory research.
Research question is exploratory research is qualitative.
No variables as such. Rather fact
Define control. Back to the discussion of spurious. The more other extraneous
variables we control for, the closer we get to causality.
Control by design - ahead of time by the way we design the experiment.
Ex: by stratification in sampling - control the
Q1: What were changes happening to lone parent families?
Note: for a high mark it is important to give equal attention to reasons and to
consequences.
Points that could be made in an answer to this question include:
There have always been lone parent fami
What changes have there been over recent times to patterns of family life such as
marriage, cohabitation and divorce?
One reason why there has been an increase in cohabitation is that the stigma attached to
living and having a sexual relationship with som
Internal validity. Comparison between experimental and control group. Is the
variability due to the treatment or extraneous variable? Are we adequately controlling
for extraneous variables?
Internal:
We talked about matching the group and the conditions.