How do non-causal associations
arise?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 9
Seven steps
1.
Define the population of interest
2.
Conceptualize and create measures of exposures and health
indicators
3.
Take a sampl

How can we mitigate against noncausal associations in design and
analysis?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 10
Seven steps
1.
Define the population of interest
2.
Conceptualize and create measures of exposures

Are exposures associated with
disease?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 6
Seven steps
1.
Define the population of interest
2.
Conceptualize and create measures of exposures and health
indicators
3.
Take a samp

What is a cause?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 7
Seven steps
1.
Define the population of interest
2.
Conceptualize and create measures of exposures and health
indicators
3.
Take a sample of the population
4

When do causes work together?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 11
Seven steps
1.
Define the population of interest
2.
Conceptualize and create measures of exposures and health
indicators
3.
Take a sample of th

What is a sample?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 4
Seven steps
1.
Define the population of interest
2.
Conceptualize and create measures of exposures and health
indicators
3.
Take a sample of the population

Measures of disease occurrence
and frequency
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 5
Seven steps
1.
Define the population of interest
2.
Conceptualize and create measures of exposures and health
indicators
3.
Take

How do we delay disease
progress once it has started?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 13
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What is screening?
When should we screen?
How do we evaluate a screening test?
How do we decide on

External validity:
to what populations do our
study results apply?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 12
Seven steps
1.
Define the population of interest
2.
Conceptualize and create measures of exposures and hea

Is the association causal, or are
there alternative explanations?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 8
Seven steps
1.
Define the population of interest
2.
Conceptualize and create measures of exposures and healt

Conclusion
Epidemiology and what
matters most
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 14
1. Seven steps of an epidemiological study
2. Balancing comparability and external validity
3. Small effects, big implications

An introduction
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 1
Epidemiology is the science of understanding the
causes and distribution of population health so that we
may intervene to prevent disease and promote health.

What is a population?
What is population health?
Epidemiology matters: a new introduction to methodological foundations
Chapter 2
A brief introduction to the graphical notation used in Epidemiology
Matters
Epidemiology Matters Chapter 2
2
Diseased
Non-dis

Chapter 14
Dealing with confounding
in the analysis
In the previous chapter we discussed briefly how confounding could be
dealt with at both the design stage of a study and during the analysis of
the results. We then mentioned that there are two main stat