24
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
tool-chip interface and the shear angle should be rather greater. In reality, the
opposite is true [29] so angle does not exceed 25o. Because the force R applied
to the cutting tool must act within the

Appendix D: Hydraulic Losses: Basics and Gundrill Specifics
541
As such, the feed rate can be increased by 3040% without compromising quality
parameters of drilled holes [2]. The results obtained, however, also have
methodological significance for the des

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
251
to restore the original shape of the drill that significantly lowers the number
of possible re-sharpenings.
More intelligent ways to design the flute profile to achieve a suitable shape of the
chip can be understood i

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
f
2
t1 =
1
cot r
1+
cos r
2
327
(4.150)
This equation can be used to determine the uncut (undeformed) chip thickness for
any point of the cutting edge 12.
4.9.2 Load Distribution Over the Cutting Edge
Load distributi

Appendix C: Basics of Vector Analysis
509
volume of the parallelepiped formed by the three vectors given. It can be evaluated
numerically as
ax
a ( b c ) = bx
cx
ay
by
cy
az
bz = ( by cz bz c y ) ax + ( bx cz bz cx ) a y + ( bx c y by cx ) az (C.17)
cz
An

442
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
[20] Astakhov VP, Galitsky VV, Osman MOM (1995) A novel approach to the design of
self-piloting drills. Part 1. Geometry of the cutting tip and grinding process. ASME J.
of Eng. for Ind. 117:453463
[21

30
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
1.
The physical resource of the cutting tool that includes the tool life is
reverse proportional to this energy [29]. The smaller the energy required
by the cutting system, the greater the tool life.
2.

Appendix D
Hydraulic Losses: Basics and Gundrill Specifics
Experience does not ever err. It is only your judgment that errs in promising
itself results which are not caused by your experiments.
Leonardo da Vinci, Notebooks
Italian engineer, painter, and s

Appendix E: Requirements to and Examples of Cutting Tool Drawings
559
References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
Tanner JP (1990) Manufacturing Engineering: An Introduction to the Basic Functions.
2nd. ed. Marcel Dekker, New York
Mutter CS (1996) Product tool

2 Basics Definitions and Cutting Tool Geometry, Single Point Cutting Tools
65
x0
va
2
3
c ct /2
a
1
0
y
0
4
SECTION A-A
ENLARGED
z0
n1-2= 0
n
A
1
0
B3
y
2
0
r
p
B
SECTION B-B
ENLARGED
n3-2
A
f
n
ddr
Figure 2.10. Tool-in-Holder (Tool-in-Machine) coordinat

2 Basics Definitions and Cutting Tool Geometry, Single Point Cutting Tools
113
Angle ad is determined then as the angle between normals n and nw.
tan ad =
n nw
(2.89)
n nw
The vector product of n and nw is calculated as
i
j
n n w = tan r
tan r
k
1
0
= i

382
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
Distribution of the T-mach-S flank angle in the back plane
pw ( R pr ) = p r ad p ( R pr ) where md R pr Rdr
The T-mach-S flank angle vwr
(
vw ( R pr ) = arctan tan f r cos ad p ( R pr ) + tan p12 si

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
281
s
60.0
0
th
leng
Lip
s-1
s-x
9.97
s-2
1
s-r
VIEW A
r
v ch-1
2
0'
vch-r
s-r
vch-2
s-2
r
A
2
Fig. 4.80. Sense and variation of the tool cutting edge inclination angle for the major cutting
edge (lip)
forces acting o

472
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
a better description of his product (e.g., different chip breakers), provided that this
symbol is separated from the standardized designations by a dash and that it does
not contain the letter specific

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
307
2
pm
p
y0
Tool back plane
through point 1
r
1
p
0
Plane R
Plane F
SECTION p-p
p-F
p-1
cl
4
ap-1
1
SECTION n-n
T
4
cl
a
ap-F n
F
y0
z0
cl-n
z0
3
2
SECTION a-a
n
a
z0
u F-F
cl
x0
u R-R
T
3
r-F
z0
p
F
Fig. 4.103. Flan

408
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
cm = 90 + 13 + p 2 3
(5.100)
( rdr md ) tan p12 + md tan p12 cos p 2
rdr
tan p 23
tan 2 n
= arctan
sin p 23
13 = arcsin
(5.101)
p2
(5.102)
and the depth h3 calculates as
h3 = rdr sin 2 tan ( n 3 +

3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
197
in cutting for a very short period. It allows one to increase the material removal
rate restricted by the high cutting temperature in conventional turning single point
tools. As a res

3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
(a)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(b)
149
Fig. 3.14. Tool wear region shifts with the cutting feed: (a) a typical CNC lather tool, (b)
working part, (c) typical crater wear observed at moderated feed rates

3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
173
Fig. 3.43. Origin of the term rake angle
Fig. 3.44. The sense of the (a) positive, (b) neutral, and (c)negative rake angles
As mentioned earlier, Shaw [2] argues that the specific cut

36
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
The examples of energy partition in the cutting system presented in Appendix A
clearly show that the energy of plastic deformation is the greatest in machining of a
steel and aluminum alloy. The greater

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
229
superiority of this drill point design over conventional twist drills with significant
reduction in the axial force (thrust) and drilling torque and an increase in tool life
for both aluminum alloys and difficult-to-m

3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
c1d w
b1T =
sin arctan
139
(3.16)
c1
e1 g1 + 2e1 1
where
q1 = 1
f
1
d w cot r + cot r1
(3.17)
Example 3.2
Problem: Determine the true uncut chip thickness t1T and the true uncut chip wid

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
259
Fig. 4.61. MFD developed at the Xian Petroleum Institute [28]
The manufacturing concerns relate to the grinding the tip of an MFD and
inspecting the results of this grinding (re-sharpening). To make such grinding
feas

3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
s=0
f
+ s
f
f
195
- s
Fig. 3.62. Influence of the sigh of the inclination angle on the direction of chip flow
In the authors opinion, the influence of the inclination angle in other pract

3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
165
Chip
Tool
E
Workpiece
D
h er
F
A
h1
t1
ta
B
C
R CE
D1
Fig. 3.34. Model of the honed cutting edge
Combining Eqs. 3.27 and 3.28 one can obtain
her 0.5 in
y
= arccos 0.5 + in +
RCE
h1

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
297
u12 = n1 n 2 =
(n n n n ) i + (n n n n ) j + (n n n n )k =
i ( cos sin )( cos cos ) ( cos cos )( cos
j ( cos cos ) sin ( sin ) ( cos cos ) +
k ( sin ) ( cos sin ) ( cos sin ) sin
1y 2 z
1z 2 y
n1
1x 2 z
1z 2 x
n2
p

2 Basics Definitions and Cutting Tool Geometry, Single Point Cutting Tools
m = i cos r + j sin r k cot f
105
(2.58)
Vector b is directed along the flank face following the line of intersection
of this plane with the back plane drawn through point 0 of the

428
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
of the outer cutting edge so that the geometry of this surface and its cooling and
lubrication conditions start to play the most important role in tool life
considerations. As such, any small change in

364
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
chip formation is also governed by other cutting parameters such as the cutting
speed, feed rate, work material, etc.
The prime flank surface 12 having normal primary flank angle n1-p of 710o is
applie