OPERATION OF OPTICAL AND SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPES
Objectives:
Obtaining a good quality digital image of the microstructure of an etched sample already prepared in
Laboratory 1. The image can be obtained by either optical microscope or SEM to represen
Student No.:
z5018263
LABORATORY WORKSHEET
Student Name: Saba Payrovi
EXERCISE 1a
Method
Date
Submitted:
Volume Fraction Determination
by Manual
Point 02/06/15
Counting
Grid Size (Points x Points)
(4x4)
Name of Phase Being Counted
Pearlite
Total No Points
PRINCIPLE OF SEM OPERATION
SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) is a machine composed of different components such as the
gun (electron gathering ), a column (electron beams travel), series of lenses(shaping the electron
beam), sample chamber (at the base)
Question5:
(a)
Intercepts
Reciprocal
X
1
1
Y
1
1
Z
2
X
2
Y
Infinity
0
Z
1
1
X
Infinity
0
Y
Infinity
0
Z
2
X
1
4
Y
1
4
Z
1
X
0
0
0
0
Y
0
1
-1
-1
Z
1
0
1
1
Miller: (1 1 2)
(b)
Intercepts
Reciprocal
Miller: (2 0 1)
(c)
Intercepts
Reciprocal
Miller: (0 0 2)
Q
PROVING:
QUESTION 1:
QUESTION 2:
QUESTION 3:
The absorption factor (A) is constant for most diffraction geometries
but varies with angle theta for Debye Scherrer Camera and therefore
it can be ignored for all diffraction geometries except for D-S camera.
THE CONTINOUS X-RAY SPECTRUM
Kinetic energy of electron
in an electric field:
KE = eVacc
e = charge of electron
V = voltage (of tube)
Energy "released" from
electron is given by:
E = hv
h = Planck's constant
v = frequency of radiation
or:
E = hc/
If an el
MATS2003 Materials Characterisation
1. INTRODUCTION
Dr Owen Standard
1.
Course Objective
The objective of this course is to develop
an understanding of the principles,
practice and application of optical
microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray
diffraction,
MATS2003 Materials Characterisation
4. X-RAY DIFFRACTION Part 3
Dr Owen Standard
1.
Introduction
PART 1 Origin, Production, Absorption, and Filtering
of X-Rays
PART 2 Diffraction of X-Rays Direction
PART 3 Diffraction of X-Rays Intensity
PART 4
X-Ray Meth
MATS2003 Materials Characterisation
MATS1142 Crystallography and XRD
3. CRYSTALLOGRAPHY Part 2
Dr Owen Standard
This Lecture.
Crystal Lattices
Point Lattice
Plane Patterns
Plane Lattices
Space Lattices
Crystal Symmetry
An Important Reminder
2.
1
Crystal L
MATS2003 Materials Characterisation
MATS1142 Crystallography and XRD
4. X-RAY DIFFRACTION Part 2
Direction of Diffraction
Dr Owen Standard
1.
Overview
Scattering by a Single Electron
Scattering by a Single Atom
Scattering by a Crystal
Braggs Law of Di
MATS2003 Materials Characterisation
MATS1142 Crystallography and XRD
3. CRYSTALLOGRAPHY Part 3
Dr Owen Standard
This Lecture.
Crystal Lattices
Crystallographic Coordinate System
Lattice Coordinates
Lattice Directions
Miller Indices
d-Spacing i C t l
dS
i
MATS2003 MATERIALS CHARACTERISATION
MATS1142 CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION
X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Sinusoidal Waves
The sinusoidal cyclic oscillation of a wave (such as an electromagnetic wave) can be expressed as a
function of time (t) or distance (z):
INTRODUCTION
Through X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technology, we are able to determine the crystal structure of
materials. Comparing with other methods of crystal structure determination (SEM or TEM), the XRD
method can be faster and simpler with preparation a