Normal neuronal activity
Very complex, low voltage, brain waves
Carries high complex signals for necessary complex behavior
In a seizure we see high voltage, rhythmic, paroxysmal activity as a result of excessive excitation or
failure of normal
The Arcuate Fasciculus: A
cognitive neuroscience approach
How do we study the brain in a cognitive
Studying patients: from referral to writing
Structural and functional neuro
PD is characterized with an absence of movement
HD is the opposite.
Effects the dopaminergic system/basal ganglia
Names after a physician from NY.
o Noted that average duration is 15 years and patients die 10-30 years post onset.
Demyelinating disease of the CNS attacks existing myelin and oligodendrocytes.
o Also forms plaques via the scar tissue that forms from the damaged axonal tracts.
o As a result, axonal tracts become uninsulated APs slow down/become
Refers to a group of conditions that affect the supply of blood to the brain, causing limited or no
blood flow to the affected areas.
Vascular dementia caused by multiple acute strokes or by malfunction of
In older adults, cognitive deficits from depression can resemble those of dementia.
Type of mood disorder (there are anxiety, mood, and thought disorder classifications according
to the DSM)
Normal Mood Vs Mood Disorders
It is common to hav
Pediatric Brain injury
TBI in children is the #1 cause of pediatric cause of death and disability
o Boys are twice as likely as girls.
Males tend to engage more in dangerous sports.
Most concussions occur in girls from
BCS 242, Fall 2016 Exam 3 Study Guide
DISCLAIMER: The concepts outlined above are meant to give you an idea of the level of
understanding on which you will be tested. There is no guarantee that all test questions
will be based off of this list.
Measures blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in each voxel of the brain. (voxel=smallest
unit of brain we can measure in MRI)
o Can measure relative brain activity to infer about it.
Uses subtraction method BOLD signals
Dementia: Primary and progressive decline of intellect due to structural brain disease.
Decline is significant enough to compromise daily living:
o Social interaction
o Professional activities
Decline has to be s
Use of interventions to restore/compensate for cognitive deficits.
Goes back to post WW1
o Germans developed schools for soldiers with head injuries
They performed psychological testing and measurement of concrete skills.
Hormones and Cognitive Function in Women
Sex differences in AD
2/3 of AD patients in US are women.
o Thought initially that this is because women live longer than men.
o Now we know that women with MCI experience cognitive decline 2 times faster than
Parkinson s disease
Parksonsonism cluster of patients
Brady kinesia slowed movement
Loss of postural reflexes
Probable parkinsonism = Feature 1 or 2 is present
Possible parkinsonism at least 2 features fro
BCS 242 Study Guide Exam 4 Fall 2016
Know the common causes, outcomes, and factors that effect outcomes in
Boys are twice as likely as girls.
o Males tend to engage more in dangerous sports.
o Most concu
Chapter 11- Endocrine System
Chemical messengers that have specific regulatory effects on certain cells or
Released through surrounding tissue fluids
Regulate: growth, metabolism, reproduction, and behavior.
o Other affect only specifi
CHAPTER 2- CHEMISTRY, MATTER, AND LIFE
Science that deals with composition and properties of matter
o Matter is defined as anything that has mass and takes up space
o Can be a solid, liquid, or gas
Used to understand normal and abnormal functi
CHAPTER 9- THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES
Overview of the Brain
Divisions of the brain
Cerebrum: the most superior and largest part of brain. Often what people
mean when they refer to the brain
Diencephalon: the area between the cerebr
CHAPTER 8- COORDINATION AND CONTROL
Overview of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System: brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System: made up of all nerves outside the CNS
o Cranial Nerves: carry impulses to and from the brain
Chapter 7- The Muscular System
Types of Muscle:
o Makes up walls of hollow body organs & blood vessels and respiratory
o Do not contain striations: visible bands in muscle
o Makes up the hearts wall
CHAPTER 4- TISSUES, GLANDS, AND MEMBRANES
Histology: the study of tissues
A group of cells of similar structure that function together for a specific
4 Main groups of tissues:
Chapter 6: The skeleton: Bones and Joints
The Skeleton: the skeletal system is made up of bones, joints, and supporting
o Act as a framework for the body
o Protect delicate structures
Ex. Brain and spinal cord
CHAPTER 5- The Integumentary System
The Integumentary System
2. Associated Structures
Structure of the Skin
Consists of 2 layers
Underneath and supporting the dermis is the subcutaneous layer.
CHAPTER 3 Cells and Their Functions
Role of Cells
Began life as a single cell
o Divides to adult with estimated 75 trillion cells
Cytology is the study of cells
Basic structural and functional unit of life
Vary in size, shape, functions
Have all char
CHAPTER 1: ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY
o Anatomy: the study of structure
Shape and structure of the body and the relationship of its
o Physiology: the study of function
The functions and processes of living thin