Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Geothermal Problem Solutions 1. A hot geothermal source has a hot water at 65C with a flow rate of 0.05 kg/s. Determine the flow rate of R-134a that can be boiled by this source. Solution: An energy balance on the
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Nuclear Energy Figures
Coolant
Gas Gap Cladding
Fuel
Figure 1: Typical Nuclear Fuel Rod
Figure 2: Fuel Canister
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Figure 3: Containment Layers of a Typica
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Thermal/Economics Practice Problems 1. A company has decided to air condition their manufacturing facility. They are trying to decide between an absorption refrigeration system and a vapor compression refrigeratio
BS Engineering
To: Samuel W. Bodman, Secretary of Energy U.S. Department of Energy
From: Craig W. Somerton, Senior Partner Bnard and Somerton Engineering Date: April 18, 2005 Energy from Leaves
Subject:
Every fall millions of Americans go through
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Wind Energy Calculations Effect of Elevation on Wind Speed To calculate the wind speed at one height, if it is known at another height, we can use
r r h v 2 = v1 2 h 1
n
where n is the ground surface f
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Nuclear Energy Calculations Conversion of mass into energy E = mc2 Fission Fission of U-235 produces, on the average, 2.3 neutrons. Fission rate (fission per day) Fission Rate = Power [Energy Recovered per
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Ocean Energy Calculations Wave Energy Conversion Assuming that the energy of a wave is in its potential energy, we can write the wave power as Wwave = sw g( z) wave Vwavef wave where Wwave : power of the wave sw:
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Energy Production/Consumption Data Consumption - United States (1998)
1998 Consumption Quad BTU 1 36.57 21.84 21.62 7.16 3.60 0.32 Percent of Total Consumption 38.8 % 23.2 % 22.9 % 7.6 % 3.8 % 0.3 % 1998 Demand In
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Ocean Energy Problem Solutions 1. It is proposed to build an OTEC system on Lake Superior where the summer time surface temperature is 64F and the deep water temperature is 6C. Determine the minimum amount of surf
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Solar Energy Problem Solutions 1. A concentrated solar collector is used to heat air from 10C to 35C. If the collector area is 50 m2 and the concentrator efficiency is 83%, determine the flow rate of air (in cfm)
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Gasohol Fuel Data Automobile Gasohol Mileage % Ethanol 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 mi/gal 27.5 26.55 25.6 24.64 23.69 22.74 21.79 20.83 19.88 18.93 17.97
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Thermal/Economics Practice Problems 1. A company has decided to air condition their manufacturing facility. They are trying to decide between an absorption refrigeration system and a vapor compression refrigeratio
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Geothermal Problems 1. A hot geothermal source has a hot water at 65C with a flow rate of 0.05 kg/s. Determine the flow rate of R-134a that can be boiled by this source. 2. A vapor compression refrigeration system
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Examples of Bills from the 107th Congress on Alternative Energies S. 188 Purpose: To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to modify the tax credit for electricity produced from certain renewable resources. Summ
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Solar Energy Calculations Solar Radiation Extraterrestrial radiation is give by 360n G ext = G sc 1 + 0.33 cos 365 where n is the day of the year and GSC is solar constant, 1367 W/m2. The calculation of the solar
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Ocean Energy Conversion Figures Figure: OTEC Interaction Diagram
Ocean Surface (High Temperature Heat Reservoir) at TH
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QH
Heat Engine
Wnet
QL
Ocean Depth (Low Temperature Heat Reservoir) at TL
1
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Solar Energy Figures
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Fusion Reactions in the Sun
Hot Water Solar Collectors
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Spring 2005
Solar Photovoltaic Panel
2
Energy from Leaves
Gas
Convert Leaves to Synthesis Gas Energy Content
100 pounds of leaves = 7 gallons of gasoline
Syn Gas 40% Hydrogen Hydrogen for Fuel Cells Trillions of Tons of Leaves Reduce Foreign Oil Consumption
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Basic Thermal Engineering Control Volume Energy Balance Two types of control volumes: Work Devices: turbines, pumps, compressors Heat Devices: boilers, condensers, heat exchangers Steady state energy balance 2 Wor
Spring 2007
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Project 3 Design of an Oscillating Water Column Power System Due Friday, March 30, 2007 The U.S. Senate subcommittee on coastal energy resources has hired the engineering firm of Bnard and Some
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Impact of Electricity Production on Public Health for Various Countries
Electricity Production vs. Public Health
140 Infant Mortality Male Life Expectancy
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120
Years or Deaths/1000 births
100
80
60
40
Spring 2004
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Time Value of Money Functions Definitions A: Annual Cost or Value P: Present Cost or Value F: Future Cost or Value N: number of compound periods i: interest rate in decimal form. To convert from one t
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Ocean Energy Problem 1. It is proposed to build an OTEC system on Lake Superior where the summer time surface temperature is 64F and the deep water temperature is 6C. Determine the minimum amount of surface water
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Wind Energy Problems Solutions 1. A downtown city terrain is under consideration for a wind farm. At 15 meters the wind velocity is found to be 4.3 m/s. Develop a graph of wind power density versus height f
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Fuel Cell Calculations Reaction Equations Overall reaction for any hydrocarbon fuel reacting with oxygen in air (1)hydrocarbon fuel + (a)O2 + (a)(3.76)N2 (b)CO2 + (c)H2O + (a)(3.76)N2 Solve for a, b, and c
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Solar Energy Problems 1. A concentrated solar collector is used to heat air from 10C to 35C. If the collector area is 50 m2 and the concentrator efficiency is 83%, determine the flow rate of air (in cfm) that can
Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Wind Energy Figures Table: Classes of Wind Power at Heights of 10 and 50 Meters Height of 10 m Height of 50 m Wind Wind Wind Wind Wind Power Powe Speed Power Speed Density r (m/s) Density (m/s) (W/m2) 2 Class (W/m
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Fuel Cell Property Tables From: Cengel and Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006. Table Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute en
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Geothermal Energy Figures Figure 1 The Earth's Heat
from: http:/www.geothermal.marin.org/GEOpresentation Figure 2 Temperatures in the Earth
from: http:/www.geothermal.marin.org/GEOpresentation
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Design of Alternative Energy Systems
Format for Technical Memo
MEMORANDUM TO: FROM: DATE: SUBJECT: Professor Craig W. Somerton Department of Mechanical Engineering Jill (Joe) Spartan September 2, 1998 Alternative Energy Technologies
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INTRODUC