Chapter 1: History, Theory, and Research Strategies
Development: systematic changes in the functional capabilities of the person, what a person
is capable of doing or understanding as he or she matures.
Child Development: A field of study devoted to unde
Genetics & Individual Differences
Behavioral Geneticists: estimate the extent to which genetics contribute to individual
Female egg and male sperm both put in 23 chromosomes, which is half of what is needed. New
organism called Zygote is form
FCE 211 WEEK 1
- Relationships children have with others influence how they view the world,
themselves, and how they relate to other people.
What we will find out 1. What is the normal course of development of a child from conception through
FCE 211 Early Experience and later
1. Does early experiences have a lasting impact on childrens
2. Does early experiences have a greater impact on childrens
development than later experiences?
3. What happens if children experience dif
FCE 211 Pareting and Parent Child Relationship
1. What is good parenting?
a. To some extent it depends on what characteristics are valued for
children in a culture.
b. Dobus socialized to be competitive.
c. Zuni Indians socialized to be non-competitive.
US10 Study Guide 1
Normative Sequence: Stanley Hall & student Arnold Gesell: Founder of child-study movement.
Normative Approach: Age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
Gaselles child-rearing advice: sensiti
1) Key concepts
a) Risk factors: characteristics of people or their contexts that are associated with
poor development outcomes
b) Protective factors: characteristics of people or their contexts that promote or
maintain healthy contexts that promote or ma
1) Major accomplishment of this period
a) Representation: the ability to represent an object or event in the mind. The child
can think about objects, people and actions that are not present.
2) Sensorimotor: Children understand objects by touching, seeing
1) Self-concept: refers to ones ideas about about ones identity, and how one is distinct
from others. It is the answer we give when we ask ourselves, who am i?
2) Self-esteem: refers to the value one places on that identity, and judgment about the
1) Prosocial Behavior: an action intended to benefit another person (e.g., helping,
sharing, cooperating, and comforting.
2) Aggressive Behavior: an action intended to harm another person
a) Instrumental Aggression: involves struggles over possessions or
1) The Macrosystem: the broadest level of the environment; the culture or subculture in
which the child and family are living.
a) Cultural context
b) Historical context
b.i) Gradual change over time (technology, life expectancy)
b.ii) Historical events (w
1) Development Psychology: The investigation of the origins, course, changes, and
continuities in disordered or maladaptive behavior over a persons life span
a) Four Principles
a.i) Must take into account the role of development in interpreting symptoms,
1) Kazdin and Benjet
a) 74% of parents of children 17 years of age or younger use spanking as a discipline
b) 94% of parents of 3- and 4-year-old children use corporal punishment
c) corporal punishment has been banned at home and school in Austr
1) Are children understanding the problem the same way as researchers think they are
understanding it? 6-4
a) Preoperational stage (kindergarten): would say 6. Cover up 4, leaves 6. Different
understanding. Answer not illogical. Conservation, asked questi