BIOMOLECULES THE PROTEINS
Proteins of prime importance comprise 10 to 30 percent of cell mass and have many
physiological functions. All enzymes, blood proteins, hemoglobin, and antibodies are functional
proteins. All proteins contain C, O, H, and N and m
Concept 1: Heart Anatomy
The human heart is a cone-shaped muscular pump located in the mediastinal cavity of the thorax
between the lungs and beneath the sternum.
The cone-shaped heart lies on its side on the diaphragm, with its base (the widest part) upw
The superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava bring deoxygenated blood from the body to the right
The pulmonary trunk exits from the right ventricle and carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Four pulmonary veins enter the left
Functions of Macromolecules
Part 1: Carbohydrates Functions
Carbohydrates functions range from providing energy to supporting tree trunks. Function is
determined by the way in which monomers are joined in carbohydrate chain.
The glucose polymer glycogen i
Concept 1: Blood Vessel Structure and Function
Blood vessels form a tubular network throughout the body that allows blood to flow from the heart to
every body cell and then back to the heart. The three types of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries, and
Concept 2: The Cardiac Cycle
The chambers of the heart alternately contract and relax in a rhythmic cycle.
During the period of contraction (systole), the heart pumps blood out through the arteries; during the
period of relaxation (diastole), the heart fi
Concept 3: Electrical Activity of the Heart
The heart's rhythm of contraction is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SA node), often called the
pacemaker. This node is part of the heart's intrinsic conduction system, which is made up of specialized
Concept 4: Heart Pump Operation
The activity of the conduction system, muscles, and valves of the heart are synchronized so that the
heart can operate as a pump.
The conduction system initiates and coordinates the muscular activity of the heart.
BIOMOLECULES - THE CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are organic molecules with the general formula of CHO in 1:2:1 ratio. Although
carbohydrates constitute only 1 to 2 percent of cell mass, they provide the raw fuel for cellular
energy production. Carbohydrate
Interior Chambers of the Heart
An internal partition separates the right and left sides of the heart. This is called either the interatrial
septum (between the atria) or the interventricular septum (between the ventricles), depending on which