Chapter 8 - Atomic Spectroscopy
Chapter 9 Atomic Absorption
A() = ()bC
Notice high resolution!
Excellent series of methods for determining the elemental composition in
environmental samples, foods and drinks, potable water, biological fluids,
Gradient elution in liquid chromatography is analogous to
temperature programming in gas chromatography.
Increased eluent strength is required to elute more
strongly retained solutes. RP-HPLC (increase organic, make
Read pp. 1-22
Problems 1,7,8,9 and 10
Analytical chemistry deals with methods for determining the
chemical composition and quantity of matter (gas, liquid or solid): a
Two types: classical (or so-called wet chemical methods)
The Analytical Challenge
X, Y and Z
Individual volume zones
of each analyte
Very few analytical methods provide both qualitative and
quantitative analysis of complex mixtures. Some form of
SEPARATION is needed up front.
Analysis of Ch
These are the steps we take to get the right answer for our purpose.
The answer should have sufficient accuracy and precision to support
Raw data = individual measurements
Treated data = concentrations derived from
Chapter 20 - Molecular Mass Spectrometry
Read pp. 550-570
MS is probably the most widely applicable of all the
analytical tools available.
Elemental composition of samples of matter.
Structures of inorganic, organic and biolo
Raman spectroscopy has become an incredibly useful analytical technique for the
identification of organic, inorganic, and biological samples. Raman spectra can
generally be measured from solids, liquids, and gases, including thin films
An experiment deliberately imposes a treatment on a group of objects or
subjects in the interest of observing the response. This differs from an
observational study, which involves collecting and analyzing data without
Chapter 21 pp. 589-602, 607-622
Information needed about the structure and composition (surface and
bulk) of materials: microscopic and nanoscopic domains!
Overview of a Mass Spectrometer
Electron Multiplier Detector
An electron multiplier consists of many dynodes. A progressively decreasing
negative voltage (more positive) is applied to each dynode in series by di
Signals and Noise
Read pp. 110 - 123
Impossible to detect
a signal when the
S/N becomes less
than about 2.
Internet: Wikipedia (Signals and Noise)
Discrete Signal Processing and Samplin
Chapter 16 - Infrared Spectrometry
Excitation of vibrations
and rotations in a
from one vibrational state
2.5 to 50 m or 4000 to
200 cm-1 (mid-IR)
Much lower in energy
than electonic excitation!
530 nm =
Chapter 14 Applications of Molecular
Read: pp 367-380
A( ) = ()bC
Slope = b
values in UV/Vis molecular absorption spectrometry range from 0
= 8.7 x 1019 PA
Capture cross-section area ~10
Chapter 30 Capillary Electrophoresis
Read: pp. 867-877 Optional Problems: 30-1,2,5,6, 7 and 9
Charged analytes migrate in the presence of an electric
field. Separation is based on differential rates of migration.
Separation method carried out in a buffer-
Chapter 22 Introduction to Electroanalytical
Read: pp. 628-653
Electroanalytical methods are a class of techniques in
analytical chemistry, which study an analyte by
measuring the potential (volts) and/or current (amperes)
Temperature control of injection port and column are key.
0.1 to 10 L
Must vaporize all of the analytes in sample. Often the
injector temperature is about 50 oC the least volatile
Exam III Review Sheet (November 25th)
Chapter 21 Surface Characterization
1. Basic design of the SEM and EDX attachment. How are electrons and x-rays produced from a
sample? What information does the technique provide?
2. Basic design of the STM and AFM.
There are three types of error:
1. Gross error analyst makes a gross mistake (misread
balance or entered wrong value into calculation).
2. Systematic error - always too high or too low
(improper shielding and grounding of an instrument
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Column separation (liquid-liquid, liquid-solid) used for separating
and analyzing compounds based on differences in their
interaction with a stationary phase.
Adsorption, partition, ion exchange, molecular exc
Homework Set 1
1.1. A transducer is a device that converts information contained in chemical or physical domain
into an electrical signal or the reverse. The most common input transducers convert chemical or
physical information to
Homework Set 2
26.2. The general elution problem arises whenever chromatograms are obtained on samples that
contain species with widely different partition ratios. When conditions are such that good
separations of the more strongly
Homework Set 3
28.2. Three methods for improving resolution are: (1) Adjustment of ka and kb by employing
a multi-component mobile phase and varying the ratio of the components to find an optimal
mixture, (2) variation in the chemi
Homework Set 3
27-1. In gas-liquid chromatography, the stationary phase is a liquid that is immobilized on a solid.
Retention of sample constituents involves equilibria between a gaseous and a liquid phase. In gassolid chromatograp
Homework Set 4
30.1 Electroosmotic flow is the migration of the bulk liquid in the capillary when a
high voltage is applied to the capillary. This is caused by the double layer that is formed
at the silica capillary surface due to
Homework Set 6
8.2. Resonance fluorescence is a type of fluorescence in which the emitted radiation has a
wavelength that is identical to the wavelength of the radiation used to excite the fluorescence.
8.3. Fluorescence will occur