Afferent Nervous System Pain Taste Smell
The afferent nervous system is where all your special senses send your
information in. And even information that isnt special for example
trying to maintain your posture when youre havin
Cardiac Structure and Activation
Your heart muscles are shaped like soup cans. They are also stacked on
one another like soup cans. Some split into a Y shape which allows the
curving to occur.
So you have these cylindrically sh
The eye is designed to receive light and produce the electrical signals
that will carry up into your brain and allow you to produce an image of
the world around you. The image you produce, is your image.
Light that comes
Cerebellum Sleep Spinal Cord
Cerebellum is located at the back, just above the back of where your
It is subdivided into three parts. When youre talking about the
cerebellum its riding a bike and walking around with
Motor unit is an alpha-motor neuron and the muscle fibers (cells) that it
innervates. They have the efferent neurons coming out of the spinal cord
where the cell bodies are in the gray matter.
we can see h
Efferent Nervous System
The Efferent Nervous System sends signals OUT of your nervous
There are three big parts to this: Your sympathetic nerves, your
parasympathetic nerves, and the somatic nervous system.
Muscle Metabolism and Control
When you go to use your muscles there are three separate ways you can
generate the energy you need to have your muscles contract.
Inside your muscles, the thing you have most of is water. The thing
Hearing and Equilibrium
Your ability to keep your balance is closely tied to your hearing.
You have three parts to your ear: you have an outer ear called the pinna,
a middle ear which has three small bones in it, and then you h
Subcortical Structures - Memory
Underneath your cortex, you have other structures which carry on
The subcortical structures go by different names here, nuclei, cortex, etc.
Basal nuclei aka basal gan
Muscle Structure and E-C couplings
Skeletal muscles are things that are actually going to contract when we
activate those alpha motor neurons.
You have three kinds of muscle in you: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.
Both cardiac m
Your smooth muscles have cells which are much smaller than your
skeletal muscle cells.
These cells have a nucleus. These muscle cells can undergo mitosis. So
when women are pregnant, the uterus grows and there are
Fluid on the inside of the cells is called intracellular fluid (ICF). The
fluid on the outside of the cells is called interstitial fluid (IF). If the
membrane to a cell is compromised, the cell will die becaus
In many cell types there are receptors that bind to agonists that cause
depolarization of the cell.
There is no activation which is only electrical they always have to have
some chemical component to
Energy Production Cytoskeleton
The mitochondrias main function is to produce ATP. ATP = adenosine
triphosphate. Phosphorylation of a molecule allows cellular signaling to
occur. This can also occur with an increase in the amount
When you activate an action potential in either a neuron or in a muscle
cell, you send a signal over a far greater distance than a graded potential.
It does this by opening up a special series of channels which
Nucleus is where genes are stored (chromosomes)
Cytosol = liquid portion of the cell.
- Has high protein content (never something like 5mg/mL in a
LAB but inside your cell you can have up to 60mg/mL). This is
Central Nervous System
Your brain and your spinal cord are what make up your CNS.
The brain and the spinal cord control you. They collect information from
your senses. They also know things like the position of your body.
Diffusion movement from an area of high concentration to a lower
The net diffusion is the difference of the movement from one area to
another (AB - BA). Diffusion ALWAYS means NET DIFFUSION.
Homeostasis ability to maintain the normal physiological state
- In terms of maintaining your bodys health what is always going to have
to be maintained is the internal environment of your cells.
- Interstitial fluid = liquid a
The inside of the cell has a negative charge compared to the outside of
Anywhere else you look the positive and negative charges balance each
other. Its only right along the membrane that they show u
The connection between two neurons is called a synapse.
Most of the neural synapses have an axon forming a synapse onto a
The presence of endorphins block the pain pathways chemically.
When we talk about a syn
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Schematically outline the functional organization of the nervous system, highlighting the CNS.
Describe the gross anatomy of the brain: gray vs. white mater, gyri vs. sulci, the ventricular
system, the lobes o
NERVOUS SYSTEM CELLS
List the two gross anatomical divisions of the nervous system and the major structures that
comprise each. Describe the cellular-tissue level of organization (i.e., microscopic anatomy) of
the nervous system. O
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Schematically outline the functional organization of the PNS.
List the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and their basic general functions. Identify the major groups of
spinal nerves and how many nerves comprise each
diuse system - nothing is directly connected to each other
A) ENDOCRINE SYSTEM OVERVIEW
controls pituitary gland
just behind the thyroid gland
most important organ
has endocrine cells in it
glands but secrete
Start here for
amount of blood in the heart on the leU side of the heart at the end of ventricular diastole
amount of blood in the heart on the leU side at the end of ventricular contrac5on
7% soluble proteins
1% other solutes
60% of soluble proteins are albumins (blood colloid osmo<c pressure BCOP)
35% are globulins - transport proteins (IE ions, hormones, lipids)
4% brinogen (brin is insolu
renal artery, renal vein, ureter all in the hilum (indenta,on)
A) ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
bag of smooth muscle
~ The Nephron
smallest func,onal unit of kidney
tubes made up of single lining of cells
Lecture 28 Adaptive Immunity: T Lymphocytes & Skin
Protect you against viruses and cancerous cells
Attack cells with both a foreign antigen and self-antigen (MHC)
Cancer virus infected cells, transplants attacked
Cytotoxic T Cells
o Bind to
Lecture 23 Arteries and Arterioles
Three layers endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, connective tissue
o Capillaries only have endothelium
Types of Blood Vessels
o Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins
o Each has a different function
Vocabulary for PHYSIO EXAM 3 old questions. Find, create, and access flashcards with Course Hero.
PHYSIO EXAM 3 old questions
end diastolic volume(ESV)
120 ml; the amount of blood in the ventricles
at the end of passive ventricular filling (i.e., late diastole)definition
Vocabulary for FINAL EXAM. Find, create, and access cardiovascular system, flashcards with Course Hero.
Cardiac Cell structure?
-Cylindrical shaped cells
-Intercalated disks join cells end to end
-Similar filaments as in skeletal muscles
-Thin filament activation by Ca++ binding to tronopin
INTERCALATED DISKS= strong connection between cells
-desmosomes for strength
-Gap junctions for electrical activation spreaddefinition
Exam 3 notes
Vocabulary for Exam 3 notes. Find, create, and access flashcards with Course Hero.