Deductive: the conclusion follows necessarily from
E.g. modus ponens
Week 2: Logic
If p then q, p, so q.
Inductive: introduces uncertainty.
E.g. All UW students are under 7 feet tall.
Phil/Psych 256: Exam review questions
Review questions for exam 3, Nov. 29, 2012
The exam will have 6 short-answer questions taken from the following list. You will have
to answer 5 of the 6 questions. There will also be 2 short-essay questions taken from
1. Self-consciousness of
Three Mechanisms of Creative
2. Neural representation
3. Recursive binding
University of Waterloo
Phil/Psych 256: ESSAY. Fall, 2012
Essays (23% of the marks for this course) are due Nov. 15.
Essays should not be longer that 10 pages, typed, double spaced, (3,000 words,
including references). You should consult 5-10 sources other than the textbook: for
Futures for Cognitive
The Future of Cognitive
2. Embodied, embedded, extended, enacted, dynamic
3. Bayes craze
4. Multilevel explanations
molecular, neural, psychological, s
Chaos: Slight differences in initial conditions lead to
strongly diverging results.
Weather: butterfly effect
Week 11: Dynamic and
Week 9: Brains and
PLEASE PUT AWAY ALL
How to Investigate Brains
Types of Brain Scans
CAT: Computerized axial tomography.
Single cell recording
Evaluation: How to
1. Pick one approach (e.g. rules, connectionism)
as the RIGHT way to do cognitive science.
2. Produce hybrid models, combining
Week 8: Review
3. Develop new unified t
Representation: simple units (like neurons)
with activations (firing rates) and links to
other nodes (excitatory and inhibitory)
Week 7: Connections
Procedures: activation of a
Image: mental representation that is similar to
what it represents.
Main example: visual (pictorial) images
Week 6: Images
Maps, diagrams, pictures
PLEASE TURN OFF AND PUT AWAY ALL
Analogy: use mental representation of one
example (source, base) to solve another one
Great scientific analogies:
Week 5: Analogy
From: The Meaning of Tingo
Neko-neko (Indonesian): person whose creative
ideas make things worse.
Mokito (New Guinea): truth that everyone knows
Week 4: Concepts
but no one talks about.
PLEASE TURN OFF AN
Rule: Mental representation of the form
IF . THEN
Week 3: Rules
Not just a moral instruction.
Simpler than logic.
Examples: What are some rules that describe your
knowledge of how to enjoy the weeken
Survey: Yes, No, ?
1. People only use 10% of their brains.
2. The brains of 18-year olds are fully developed.
3. People grow new brain cells every day.
4. Computers can read peoples minds.
PLEASE TURN OFF A