Review and Summary (week 1-6) for PSCI 231
Chapter one: Introduction and Overview
w Government policies directed towards business
w Important focus of political debate
QUESTIONS TO UNDERSTAND:
w What should role of government be?
In this article, the author elaborates on the theory of discusses the
importance of location in global competition. His main point is that despite the high
levels of development in todays world, locati
MIDTERM 1 NOTES
Mutual dependence and interdependence
Gov't (federal, provincial and municipal) depend on business investment for the
economic activity and growth of the country
o Generates tax revenues
humanitarian assistance to the host nation (e.9., Rwanda).
2. The second source of authority is found in the UN Charter. Each of Chapters Vl, Vll
Vlll of the charter contain specific authority to conduct a spectrum of operations with UN
outside assistance will not be necessary. lt should be expected, therefore, that any
will be well established by the time Canadian troops are committed.
5. Even before a firm commitment is made by the Canadian gove
mandate and its military campaign must be in accordance with any mandate issued by the
international organization sponsoring the overall campaign and coalition.
2. ln situations in which the indigenous government is nascent and only developing, it
to form part of this strategy, they only encompass one arm of a multi-faceted campaign
uses a comprehensive approach incorporating all elements of power in a unity of purpose.
amount of emphasis placed the military's role will be dictated by the
reducing the threat of attack against Canada while increasing the likelihood of support
other nations. Also the willingness to contribute to allies, both regionally and on a global
has been seen as effective in containing potentially unstable s
1. The principles and considerations articulated above are only intended to provide
guidance and are not meant to be read as hard-and-fast rules^ They are doctrinal
based on the overarching philosophy; they are not dogma and should be applied w
318. MINIMUM NECESSARY FORGE
1. No more force may be used than is necessary to achieve an aim. The amount used must
be reasonable and it must not be punitive. Once the aim is achieved, no more force should
2. The need to use minimum force is not
the culture arrangements of the environment.
6. lt should be noted that the domestic populations of nations contributing troops to a
campaign may not comprehend the importance of working within cultural constructs and
social developments to reflect
stake ensures that soldiers know how to reinforce the COIN effort and objectives.
commanders and soldiers must be made to understand that success in COIN is not
synonymous with physical destruction of insurgents and that achieving
principles of responsible government. Another example may be found in education
development. lf the desires of a village council is for a CIMIC team to coordinate and
for the construction of a religious school rather than a secular school, this re
campaign and its acceptance by an indigenous population. While this perception may
within the host nation population regardless, the practice of cultural absolutism is more
generate feelings of illwill or cultural imperialism than would ot
2. lf martial law or emergency powers are enacted, these measures should be temporary in
nature and their purpose must be clearly explained to the people of the host nation. Such a
decision must be made carefully, for it will be readily exploited by insur
d. security operations that create a framework in which other elements of power
may operate and foster the development of indigenous forces to assume and fulfil
their own security requirements.
2. ln a COIN campaign, strategic centres of gravity will be s
humanitarian intervention provides that a state may intervene in the internal affairs of
state on the conditions that there is widespread humanitarian distress, the host nation is
unwilling or unable to deal effectively with the crisis, and the ex
of indigenous needs is gained and that planned operations and their effects are considered
a suitable cultural perspective.
5. When operating in supporl of a friendly government, the military must be seen to
clearly in support of the civil po
when called out by regulations (i.e., Class B or C reserve service). ln addition, Part lll of the
NDA sets out the Code of Service Discipline. CF members on COIN operations are
subject to the Canadian military justice system.
2. The second source o
1. Before any unit or component of the Canadian Forces (CF) may deploy on operations,
commanders at all levels need to understand the legal foundation for the pafticular
operation to be undertaken. Generally, there are two le
challenge to the government and the military to maintain the morale of the public and of
elements deployed and in training to deploy. The key element in achieving these
objectives is a
strategic public affairs programme.
3. Potentially, a domesti
additional roles such as the re-establishment of essential services and emergency
relief. As the security situation improves, these responsibilities should be assumed by
organizations better suited to undertaking them. Concurrent with t
dismissal of a nascent insurgency as mere criminal behaviour is the surest way of fuelling it.
Such dismissal adds to the insurgent's narrative of subjugation and overall legitimacy and
provides political leaders with an excuse to ignore the root causes o
and conduct of security and other operations requiring civil, police and military
Naturally, such efforts would be expanded should the situation continue to deteriorate.
1. Guided by the national strategic direct
respective ministers of possible capabilities, options and restrictions within the context of the
insurgency's perceived causes and objectives. From this initial planning, a strategic
should be prepared,a2 setting out the government's policy and
These objectives will be reached through, or at least in relation to, the identified centres of
gravity. Given the nature of counter-insurgencies, this will in many cases be conducted on
psychological plane vice only the physical plane of physical att
operating securely and can eventually pass development and aid issues to international
indigenous agencies, and Canadian involvement may be withdrawn in the confidence of an
THRESHOLD CIRCUMSTANCES AND CONSIDERATIONS
culture. Not only does this view disregard the lack of legitimacy of the local authorities, but
assumes either that there is no moral yardstick that can be applied or that the local
is not capable of higher standards. Such conduct by local aut
"t tbid., p. 1584.
its worst, moral relativism in such cases may be considered racist for it assumes an
indigenous population is not
capable of morally correct standards of behaviour. Again, this attitude will not garner
support from the loca
Stress the importance of regulation
Compartmentalization of the financial industry was
introduced in the Great Depression Glass-Stegall
This was revoked and allowed commercial banks and
investments houses to