The gambling problem: Argues the prudential reason of whether it could be rational to
believe in God even if you think it is enormously improbable that God exists.
o Existence of God is possible even if it is extremely implausible
o Pascal s
Healthcare System in Canada Rubric for Essay Writing
Demonstrates accurate and complete understanding of the question
Thesis is easily recognisable, sophisticated, insightful and clear
Arguments are identifiable, reaso
The Fundamental of Ethics- Desire theory
Desire Satisfaction Theory- a theory of human well- being that claims that the satisfaction of your actual
or informed desires is necessary and sufficient to improve your welfare
something is good for
The Fundamental of Ethics Introduction to Philosophy
The Lay of the Land
-Ethics (moral philosophy) -the branch of knowledge concerned with answering questions such as what
sort of life is worth living, how we should treat one another etc.
Value Theory: W
Introduction to Philosophy
The bias blind spot_ even though we are susceptible to the same type of error, we think .
3 main points
-we sometimes make bad decisions
-we are comfortable with our perceptions
What is philosophy? Ethics?
Reasons for our action
The Fundamental of Ethics- Virtue Theory
Focusing less on matters of moral duty and concentrating more on ideal of characters
leads us directly to the consideration of virtue ethics
Virtue Ethics- a normative ethical theory that says an actio
The Fundamental of Ethics
Hedonism Chapter One
Happiness and Intrinsic Value
-Instrumental Goods- those things whose value consists in the fact that they help to bring about other
good things. Ex. Money, vaccinations, mothballs
-Intrinsically Valuable- th
Active omission is sometimes considered doing something
Philosophy doesnt care with what you believe
Philosophy doesnt like it when you have to accept what I say, because I feel it
o Why should I believe what you say
What is an argument?
o It is not a fi
(2) Arguments for Dualism
1) The body has spatial properties
2) The mind has no spatial properties
3) Therefore, mind and body are distinct
What Leibnizs Law property is demonstrated?
o Divisibility argument
This argument is valid but, is it a sound argu
Mind and Soul
Soul (whatever it is) seems to involve mind
Sometimes it is said that mind is the rational part of the soul
o But this seems to forget many conscious mental states (feelings, emotions,
A quick argument for dualism
o The mind (par
3 Types of Impossibilities
A priori truth: Logically necessary due to logic and definitions present.
o Example: Joe cant be a married bachelor.
A posterior truth: Nomologically necessary due to laws present.
o Example: Joe cant travel faster than th
The memory answer provides a way out of the circle.
o Maybe the rule of truth is absolute
o But it applies only to what we can understand or conceive quickly (in a flash of
o If we have to remember the steps of an argument, then error can occur.
I think, therefore I exist.
Any proposition which if you think it, it must be true Survives the Method of Doubt
First-person descriptions of the way things seem are indubitable.
Incorrigibility: We cannot be mistaken about our own mental
True Belief isnt Sufficient for Knowledge
Plato argued that sometimes people trick others into believing things; sometimes
those things happen to be true. People who have been duped in this way have true
beliefs, but they dont have knowledge.
Belief and t
Third Version of the Argument
(1) If God were to exist, then that being would be all-PKG.
(6) If an all-PKG being existed, then there would be no more evil than the minimum
required for soul-building and as a consequence of human freedom.
(7) The quantity
The Problem of Evil
Argument from Evil: That the fact that there is evil in the world (or that there is so
much of it) proves there is no God.
First Version of the Argument
(1) If God were to exist, then that being would be all-powerful, all-knowing, and
60% - 69%
70% - 85%
86% - 100%
30 Spelling &
More than 20 spelling and
More than 15 spelling or
10 spelling or g