Solids are divided into two categories:
Crystalline: Possesses rigid and long-range order.
Amorphous: Lacks well-defined arrangement.
Structure of a crystalline solid is based on the unit cell, a basic repeating structural unit
Structure & Properties Unit
Dalton: Matter is composed of indestructible, indivisible atoms, which are identical for
one element, but different from other elements.
Thomson: Matter is composed of atoms that contain electrons
Molecular compounds are capable of having geometric isomers which differ in shape and
properties. Geometric isomers are defined as molecules which have the same molecular formula,
but have a different geometry of their molecular structures (
Chapter 12 Intermolecular forces: Liquids and Solids
12-1 Intermolecular Forces
Van der Waals Forces
Example: Helium forces no stable chemical bonds, and might expect it to remain a gas right
down to 0K. It is true that helium remains gaseous to very low
Alkenes are basically hydrocarbons that have a C=C double bond within their structure,
with the double bond itself being both stronger and more reactive than its single counterpart.
Hydrocarbons with double bonds also used to be called "olefi
Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria
Another equilibrium process
Sparingly soluble salts are those that have molar solubilities much less than 1 M
The dissolution of AgCl(s) in water is described
Common-Ion Effect in Acid-Base Equilibria
Common-Ion Effect: is the shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of a
compound having an ion in common with the dissolved substance.
Consider the ionization of a weak acid, HA:
HA(aq) + H2O(l)
A(aq) + H3O+(aq
Acids and Bases
(another equilibrium process)
Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates to form hydrogen ions (H+)
HA(aq) H+(aq) + A(aq)
Arrhenius Base: A substance that dissociates in, or reacts with water to
form hydroxide ions (OH).
Principles of Chemical Equilibrium
Up to this point we have focused only on the conversion of reactant into products.
However, many reaction do not go to completion. Once products are formed they can
combine to give back the reactants that you started wit
The goal of Kinetics is to deduce information about the sequence of
molecular processes involved in the conversion of reactants into products
Factors that affect reaction rates
All factors are specific for each reaction.
The periodic table is the most important organizing
principle in chemistry.
Chemical and physical properties of elements in the
same group are similar.
All chemical and physical properties vary in a
periodic manner, hence the name periodic table.
University of Waterloo DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY Chemistry 120 - Term Test #1 Lecture time: 12:30 pm Instructor: XXXXXXXXX 13 October 2000
Name (Print Clearly): _ Student Number: On your computer answer card: Signature: Fill in ovals 004 for the Secti