Name _
ID_
GGE 3202 - Geodesy I Winter Term 2013/2014
Final Exam
3 hours, closed book
26 April 2014
This exam is worth 55% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of two parts. Part A is
worth 25% of the exam mark and Part B is worth 75% of the
Name _
ID_
GGE 2012
Advanced Surveying
Winter Term 2011-2012
Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick
FINAL EXAMINATION
3 hours, closed book
13 April 2012
This exam is worth 50% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of tw
Name _
ID_
GGE 2012
Advanced Surveying
Winter Term 2008-2009
Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick
FINAL EXAMINATION
3 hours, closed book
21 April 2009
This exam is worth 50% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of tw
Name _
ID_
GGE 3202 - Geodesy I Winter Term 2008/2009
Final Exam
3 hours, closed book
16 April 2009
This exam is worth 55% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of two parts. Part A is
worth 25% of the exam mark and Part B is worth 75% of the
Name _
ID_
GGE 2012
Advanced Surveying
Winter Term 2009-2010
Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick
FINAL EXAMINATION
3 hours, closed book
14 April 2010
This exam is worth 50% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of tw
Name _
ID_
GGE 3202 - Geodesy I Winter Term 2009/2010
Final Exam
3 hours, closed book
17 April 2010
This exam is worth 55% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of two parts. Part A is
worth 25% of the exam mark and Part B is worth 75% of the
Name _
ID_
GGE 3202 - Geodesy I Winter Term 2010/2011
Final Exam
3 hours, closed book
19 April 2011
This exam is worth 55% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of two parts. Part A is
worth 25% of the exam mark and Part B is worth 75% of the
Name _
ID_
GGE 3202 - Geodesy I Winter Term 2011/2012
Final Exam
3 hours, closed book
11 April 2012
This exam is worth 55% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of two parts. Part A is
worth 25% of the exam mark and Part B is worth 75% of the
Name _
ID_
GGE 3202 - Geodesy I Winter Term 2015/2016
Final Exam
Instructor Dr Peter Dare
3 hours, closed book
9 April 2016
This exam is worth 55% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of two parts. Part A is
worth 25% of the exam mark and Par
Name _
ID_
GGE 3202 - Geodesy I Fall Term 2005/2006
Final Exam
3 hours, closed book
16 December 2005
This exam is worth 55% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of two parts. Part A is
worth 25% of the exam mark and Part B is worth 75% of the
Name _
ID_
GGE 2012
Advanced Surveying
Winter Term 2013-2014
Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick
FINAL EXAMINATION
3 hours, closed book
17 April 2014
This exam is worth 50% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of tw
Name _
ID_
GGE 3202 - Geodesy I Winter Term 2012/2013
Final Exam
3 hours, closed book
16 April 2013
This exam is worth 55% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of two parts. Part A is
worth 25% of the exam mark and Part B is worth 75% of the
Name _
ID_
GGE 2012
Advanced Surveying
Winter Term 2012-2013
Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick
FINAL EXAMINATION
3 hours, closed book
13 April 2013
This exam is worth 50% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of tw
Name _
ID_
GGE 2012
Advanced Surveying
Winter Term 2010-2011
Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick
FINAL EXAMINATION
3 hours, closed book
15 April 2011
This exam is worth 50% of your final mark in this course. It is composed of tw
29
Since the described coordinate system is not inertial with
respect to fixed stars, its acceleration (with respect to an inertial
system) can be observed as a change of geometry of the potential.
This appears as non-conservative part of the disturbing p
THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES
1.
INTRODUCTION
The method of least squares is the standard method used to obtain
unique values for physical parameters from redundant measurements of
those parameters, or parameters related to them by a known
model.
The first
15
The probability that x is less than or equal to x is the value of
,o
(x ) and is represented by the total area under the curve from - 00
0
to x
0
shown as the shaded area in Figure 2-2. Note
Frequency distributions have two important characteristics ca
28
?re-ana.l:lsis is based cornplet.:ly on the above equation and is performed
by simply specifying the elements of the design matrix A and the variancecovariance matrix EL.
6.3
Procedure
The inclusion or exclusion of certain elements in A and in
E is
in
Direct.ion observations are relative to the "zero" of the
horizontal
The location of the zero relative to the north
dircsti.o:1 is c.n :1nknown "nuisance" parameter an-: must be solved for
by the adjustment along with the unknown coordinates.
The directio
111
A, h).
Also, recall that computations on the surface of the ellipsoid
required that observations be reduced to the surface of the ellipsoid by
first taking into account the effects of the gravity field and the atmosphere, and then the effect of the he
133
Eliminating 81 from the above by (Figure 14-1)
s
14-19
s
we get
14-20
a=T-t=
where N can be approximated by the Gaussian mean radius at point 1.
1
The above equation is of sufficient accuracy for most work.
It
can be compared to the. following formula
122
13.
GENERAL FORMULAE FOR REDUCTION TO THE MAP PROJECTION PLANE
The general formulae for reduction of distances and directions
to the conformal map projection plane are discussed in this section.
These general formulae are valid for most conformal proj
From
7-44, the following expnssiondefines the constant K:
K
=
N1
N2
= -=-.:.
7-48
R.e-R.q2
.
The above two expressions for the constants K and
complete
the description of the direct problem - recall the complex mapping equation
(7-35)
X +
7.5
iy
=K
ei.R,(
78
PROJECTED
M. T.l\1. ZONES
3" WIDE
\
\
I
I
\
4(1"
1
t
I
8
I
ll
10
79
ONTARIO
COORDINATE SYSTEM.
3' M.T.M. ZONES
&
CENTRAL MERIDIANS
0
co
I
2\
.
:31
t:l.-
Approx.
20 Miles
1
I "30'
Approx.
56 Miles
Figure
u
z
<
a:; I
E-
j_
I
I
<'
Zl
I
I
I
CROSS SECTION
A
100
X=
Y
8
.'
p
t
=
+ 2N
s
p
2
9-6
9-7
+
FOr the remaining cases, the x-y equations will not be given.
The main point of interest lies in the shape of the isoscale
curves.
From 9-5, the longitude from the central meridian of all points
having a scale of
6(
The higher derivatives have been worked out in Thomas
[1952, p. 101].
Substituting the derivatives in 6-57 and 6-58 along with the
above expressions results in the following expression for the longitude
A:
A = sec
6-63
where the subscript 1 denotes tha
dz
6-17
i
6-18
6-19
The second derivative is
= .9:_ cfw_df(q)
dq
dq
dz
6-20
The higher derivatives, are derived in an c.nalogous manner,
that is
fiii(. ) : - fiii (g)
lCJ
rrv (iq)
rv (iq)
= if'IV ( q)
:
rv
'
6-21
'
( q) '
Substituting the evaluation of th
GENERAL
Conformal map projections are the class of projections in
which angles on the surface to be mapped are preserved, tnat is, corresponding angles on the map plane and the surface are equal.
We will
restrict the surface to be mapped to be the ellipso
12
of the dependent complex variable z
=x
+ i y.
If two arbitrary curves
in the domain D intersect at the point P(u , v ) at an angle
0
0
e,
then the
mapping is called isogonal if the corres.ponding curves intersect in the
e.
domain D' also at the angle
I