Sample Test, Philosophy 001
WarningMidterms and Exams in this course test for conceptual understanding. This means that not only do you need to understand all the words we use, you also need to see the connections between the corresponding concepts and to
How do we test
&*n and compare itto atf al/*s
1n SWg.*)oJ, , we oln4L
and see if we can construct an argument
lf we can, then
*d or*, orr*o'-
Can we put a C"n/^:UrLJ
into categorical form?
/os ( S*+,ly
"/g /41'04, r$ a
q"nd. ifua av r-t< depends on the rest of the
Consider the following two claims: (assume I exist)
O V Nc ovuns A vtu14
Nl A Pro
1cfw_o h r,'Yt i3
Soot- A an-'B
lf each of ftcfw_ frlmises and its conclusion can Oe
it js intended
t*ttt-n .in qs o(
Can "Most A are B" be translated into one of these?
t itS;,nw1, I
Dr Mc's Philosophy 001 (1101) Part Notes, Week4#2
"Diagrams" of the logical space
,/ t'T "P/
Arg u ments
Since validity is a matter
Ya+'wn , the
of the premises and c
P 1 t/niwv,/ h[J4 luVavt
/ 4cfw_( $)ove V
a -g"n I cne .x
The Four Rules
The number of negative premises must equal trhe'
rne r d/'U'
lf the conctusion is ,premise must
l/^NU\tu\P and two are not-we call them
fne Slhiert term in each sentence is the one c[pse,gt +.e +l\!- qha,/tt/)1;Vf
The Aptio LL term in each sentence is 4e "+W 6ne
Every categorical syllogism
We are going to use
Types of sentences used'
t. flJ 5 r'v|
2. frJo S o"tu f
3. fuit I o'L P
4' SN 5 a,cfw_1, rwt P
Note that they are noi aYlyX
sentences composed of
They each star
v. '71.n t\I'f< gtnrt y Ll
Va'hJ (as we,ll see) but it is not
1. E *! swMt l,vs Sar'n l4s
2. ft(l tuoYns M brMIL
what is provided by the premises
Dr llllc,s philosoph
y 001 (1101)part
Assignment 3 is
This is not the argument:
, VltSt fltn5 o-L ,^/w-1"
2 1ls tW< Svcfw_rt, |'tA 92t (,
I have not
Make it well-formed, if possible.
ls this well formed?
Socrates is mortal, since all men are mortal.
This is a premise that is
but is not given
What would you add to make the following valid?
Dr Mc is going to be happy only if everyone does r
Sample Section 4:
Assign variables, display. the pattern in standard form, assess for
Since only lunatics are philosophers, and Dr Mc is a lunatic, it follows
that she's a philosoPher.
lf l'm late, I'll be in big trouble, since if I'm late, l'll
lf an argument is valid, its conclusion is
not in conflict with p
reasonable to believe
more than one of the above
none of the above.
Sample Section 3:
choose ALL AND ONLY the correct responses. Two marks if
Dr Mc's Philosophy 001 (1101) Part Notes, Week 5#2@
ln class time in this room:
It will cover the text up to
along with any lecture material presented
(Proviso-if things are clarified in later lectures, that doesn't mean
Section 5: Survey Arguments
Specific lnstructions: Read the following passage, then answer the questions below.
Do Qanadiaruniversitv sfudenlsjike to read? To answer this question, investigators
chose,pt random, a sample of
*re lrrt t
%*fsection 4: supplying lmplicit claims
Al tr a,e-F
>' '9we c
c 6,.L A -) khtt
Specific I nstructions:
passages valid and state whether you
Supply one claim to make each of the following
supplied a premise
r;il dfi @t iaa +f1
Consider the following two
(a/Every student who is on the Dean's Lisf has a cumulative grade point
ovbrage of at least
(b) Alicia has a cumulative grade point average of 3.9, but she's not on the
.l" two propositions are both, at the same time, not true, those propositions are in
Section 2: Multiple Choice
Specific lnstructions: Choose the one option that besf ffs the question and enter its
corresponding capital letter in
Dr Mc's Philosophy
001 (cfw_0cfw_) Part
that an argument
lf you know
i.r ^rr^, rtrl vou acc its conclusion?
'l'f ffi t*t-\t "'ii"ri,ff"5" X$
s. tlr* is +*t tutt 4
? iT t:;-r)"ir$t*l 6d ol
1 . lf there are exactly 13 people in this room now, everybody in 001 this term will
ls it a deductively strong argument for you?
Are alldeductively st
the additional info
lf you have that info, then the argument is
Then you learn that
This aroument should
you-it should no longer
Notice, its premises are strn
fW,*V -F 8n +e bh
lUrong or Misleading words
)bviously, the meanings of all the words in an argument are important.
A/atch for attempts to have Words
Everybody should be treated equally, therefore it's discrimination that I can't get
r driver's licence." -said by
You may make
and this would help to make the
-keep in mind the principles
W+ t r J r '+hf',A ne+, zAt
Understanding the meanings of sentences
We have been understanding'lf P, then Q'as stating that ?:
1. P is necessary for Q.
12. Q is necessary for P.
)3. P is sufficient for Q.
4. Q is sufficient for P.
lf P, then Q= ?
lf -P, then -Q
lf -Q, then -P
lf Q, then P
No A a,rt- B.
would show the claim false.
lf even one A is not a B, then the claim
Sometimes, we cannot produce
reason to think there is one.
lf the conclusions are in conflict, they cannot both
lf I do not knowwhich argument
(Chapter 7,1, E)
rc4eU-, I should
Some premises should not be the focus
Dr Mc is a profes tor.( Efi
I l4at g'-futvs Frt. J;<'t'ruel'-y fu"yt
a DrML is u
la!* pofas,rs oL
n* /r*z r"r/
lf you agree with the conclusion, does it follow that the arg
Dr Mc's Philosophy 001 (1cfw_01) Part Notes Week 7#1@
Midterm on Wednesday. Any questions?
nt#4 d^, ioA
Decide whether an argument is being offered.
Some problem cases in reconstruction.
1. A,abiq"r'v senfences'
?rr"Examples. I ,uo( 9*2 * 6!9
A sentence is
htS uralk 4^rq7 -t" * eH
fr-ffu u* 1ln+trt *ft*n 7et b.r',4'ud
,hquowS if it can be used to express hr'n
You may have had
ln that case. use
When is a
,o CWA tAl
tvonLinsl AiilkfaAato make
supports the conclusion.
That is. when it does not do any of the following:
1) occur in th