1.6:
Make this histogram by hand. as the instructions suggest:
State Percentages Aged 35 and Over. 20119
F'WWFW
IU
Partner"
1.34: (a) A histogram is provided below. (b) This is an extrem
STAT 201 Quiz 2
May 23, 2003
Student #:
Name:
BLANK SPACE
A news article on the Reuters Health website, Dec. 18, 1998 reported:
A study of over 1200 people over age 65 showed that the owls those who g
Review for the Midterm
What calculations do you need to know about:
Making normal approximation to histogram.
Making a normal approximation to compute a probability in Binomial trials.
Computing a
Producing Data: Sampling and Experiments
The two sources of data for analysis and statistical inference come from:
i)
Experimentally generated data: An experiment is set up and the values of an
explan
When estimating percentages, it is the absolute size of the sample
which determines accuracy, not the size relative to the population.
This is true if the sample is only a small part of the population
When estimating percentages, it is the absolute size of .
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Example:
The Census Bureau of US is planning to take a simple random sample amounting to 1/10
Supplementary Teaching Material provided by Mr
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Supplementary Teaching Material provided by Mr. Robin Insley
-Percentages of Persons 65 Years old o
Ethan Frome
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http:/members.shaw.ca/scpai/s201_sample_post.html
Statistics 201
Sample Midterm Exam I October 5, 2007
Instructions:
Closed books/notes examination, except that you may use a one pa
Residuals can be used to check to see how well the regre.
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http:/members.shaw.ca/scottpai/Producing_Data.html
The following lecture notes are modified from Mr. Insleys class notes.
Producing Dat
Regression
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1. Given a dataset (X1, Y1), (X2, Y2), , (Xn, Yn). To study the relationship between X and Y, we
begin with a scatterplot.
2. If the s
Chapter 16: Inference about a Population Mean.
Thanks to Mr. Robin Insley
In chapters 14 where a confidence interval for was constructed and in
chapter15
where we did a test of significance on we need
* Adding observatios to a dataset
In some cases you want to ADD observations to a dataset.
For example, we used Proc Reg to find the relationship
between calories and grams of fat, and want to make pr
An Important Distinction: Observational Studies versus Randomized
Experiments
Observation Versus Experiment
An observational study observes individuals and measures variables of interest but
does not
* Analyses *
There are three basic types of parameters of interest for basic
statistics, mean, proportions, and slopes.
Common SAS procedures for doing analyses on MEAN include
Proc TTEST (comparing m
It is sometimes thought that correlation does not prove
causation but
"causal modeling" does. Despite the admonitions of
experts in this
field, researchers sometimes use goodness-of-fit
indices to hun
The main point of this example is that the type of
"atheoretical"
search for patterns that we are sometimes warned
against in graduate
school can save us from the humiliation of having to
retract
conc
Creating output in nice formats
- default output from Procs goes to your screen in
html format
- use ods pdf file=xxxx; . ods pdf close; to send
everything to single pdf file
- use ods rtf file=xxxx;
proc sgplot/ sgscatter
- standard graphs
- scatter/ series/ highlow/ band/ refline/ reg/
xaxis/ yaxis statements
= use the /group =var option on many statements
to differentiate
among groups using dif
* Data step command:
Deleting observations (rows) from datasets;
- use the delete command coded as
data newds;
set oldds;
if fat < 0 then delete;
run;
- use a subsetting IF command
(http:/support.sas.
Denition: Defense against the Dark Arts is
the science of Data.
How should it be collected?
How should it be summarized?
How should it be displayed?
How should it be interpreted?
Where are the pitfall
Contingency Tables
Chapter 22.
Experiment:
Fifty streams examined.
Each classied in two ways:
1) Slow owing or fast owing?
2) Weed choked, some weeds, shingle or silt?
Results in 2 4 contingency table
Observation Versus Experiment
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An Important Distinction: Observational Studies versus Randomized Experiments
Observation Versus Experiment
An observat
Normal Distributions
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Density Curves: If we construct the histogram of a set of quantitative data so that the areas of each
rectangle represents the re
Looking at Data-Distributions
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Statistics is the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze,
and draw conclusions fr
Solutions
seems reasonable, as long as conditions remain the same, because 975 is within the space of 85
observed values of x on which the regression line was based. That is, this is not extrapolation
Stat 201
Statistics for the Life Sciences
Chapter 4
Scatterplots and Correlation MIDTERM 1 MOVED TO
Wednesdayl OCTOBER 12 Optional problems for Ch 4:
04.1, 4.27 (data on canvas), 4.39, 4.41
NOTE: 4.41
Stat 201
Statistics for the Life Sciences
Chapter 9
Producing Data: Experiments Read Chapter 9 carefully
Optional problems:
Chapter 9: 9.1, 9.5 (identify the subjects, factors,
treatments, response v
Replication
' Assign multiple experimental units to each treatment
- Reduces the chance variability of the responses
within treatment groups.
0 Improves the results of statistical inference. Randomiza