Features of Harappan Civilisation
Harappan civilization and leadership
The Priest-King of Mohenjo-Daro
There is a leadership, but
far more egalitarian than all other ancient civilizations.
There is some fancy aristocratic h
Reading the Landscape
of surveying is to map the physical
remains of human activity
Surveys must be designed with project goals in
Introduction to Archaeology
Instructor: Dr. David Maxwell
Office: Saywell Hall 9103
Tuesday 9:30-11:00 AM
Wednesday 1:00-2:00 PM
or by appointment
Results in Culture
Culture changes to
Essentially, the expression
and communication of simple
The Future of
What is Science?
Science is a means of obtaining
reliable, factual, objective
information about the world
Feder (Frauds, Myths, Mysteries
5ed, p22) says science is a series
Culture, and Trade
Yes, with the
knife, you only
have to wear the
skin of those dead
Flaked Stone (Flintknapping)
Cores and Flakes
Site Formation Processes
Basic Categories of Evidence
Artifacts: objects manufactured, modified, or used
Ecofacts: organic and environmental remains
associated with human behaviours.
Sometimes these categories overlap, as
For most of human
history, all societies
consisted of huntergatherers.
Today, this form of
groups have been
pushed to extremely
Subsistence, & Diet
Climate & Environment
Climate refers to temperature and
Environment generally refers to geophysical
and biological surroundings.
How Old is It?
Stratigraphy and Dating
Object A is older than object B, but we do not know how
old either object is.
Objects A and B may have been placed a few minutes
apart, or millions of years apart; we have no way to tell.
Those types of changes brought about by the
cultural world, or human activity:
bone breakage for marrow extraction
intentional burning of a body for ritual disposal
Breakage of a stone tool during use or manufac
Does the Past have a
Cultural Resource Management
Final Exam Notice!
Just a reminder.
Archaeology 201 Final Exam is scheduled for:
WEDNESDAY APRIL 16 at 12:00 Noon in SWH
Final Exam is CUMULATIVE, but emphasizes
Mesopotamian trade with Magan(=Oman?), Dilmun(= Bahrain), and
ivory, carnelian from highlands exported to Mesopotamia
Gold, agate and lapis lazuli from Harappansites
The three oldest civilizations in their trad
What is a Civilization? 6 Characteristics
1.Elaborated political and religious power.
2.Clear social ranking.
3.Planned public architecture.
4.A group of highly specialized craftsmen.
5.Control and active participation in inter-regional trade
Hominoid, hominid, hominin?
Hominids = Great Apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos, orangutans,
Hominins= humans and their human ancestors (Homo (incl. Homo
sapiens, H. ergaster, H. rudolfensis), and all of the Au
Eastern North Americas
Chronology of Eastern North America
Archaic: 6000-1000 BC
Formative (Woodland ): 1000 BC-AD 1000
extinction of megafaunaat the end of
state-level societies associated with agriculture
control of reproductive success
modern cattle (Bos taurus)
The Emergence of Mesopotamias Great Powers (ca. 2000-1600 BC)
The Old Assyrian Period (2000-1800 BC)
-The Old Assyrians merchants in Anatolia
Mari and the Amorites (1810-1760 BC)
The Old Babylonian Period (1894-1595 BC)
-The First Dynasty of Babyl
Era of Pyramids
built by Sneferu, 1st king of Dyn. 4
Pyramids of Giza
4thDynasty, Old Kingdom
integration of labourers into state
tomb, causeway, and mortuary temple
2500-4000 people at Giza workhouses
Harappan Background Information
The Harappan Civilisation
The Indus Valley Civilization
in the context of other ancient civilizations
-Todays most populous area in the world
-Nearly 1 billion people (1/7 of world population)
Early Neolithic (12000-8500 BC)
People lived in villages, towards the end of the Early Neolithic some became
large and densely populated.
They began to farm a range of cereals and pulses (lentils and peas).
They began to domesticate goats.
They began to d
Art & Ritual:
Archaeology is the study of
people and their behaviour
through material culture.
There is more to being human
than making tools, acquiring
food, or even creating social